Determination of Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection Among the Pregnant Women with Lower Abdominal Pain


Chandra Bala Sekharan1*, Devarajan Dinesh Kumar2, Koneru Ratna Kumari1, Cecilia Alphonce Joachim1

1Department of Biochemistry, International Medical and Technological University, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania - 77594

2Department of Anatomy, International Medical and Technological University, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania - 77594


The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection among the pregnant women with lower abdominal pain and its aetiological micro-organism. Cross sectional study was done at Mount meru hospital laboratory, Arusha, Tanzania.  225 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Levolosi hospital (Arusha, Tazania) were enrolled. To diagnose urinary tract infection in the enrolled participants, mid stream urine was collected and culture on Macconkey agar media and blood agar media. Urine analysis was done using dipstick test, urine microscopy and biochemical tests. The prevalence of urinary tract infection was found to be 31.6%.  High incidence of infection was found in 33-40 years age group (41.6%). The incidence of infection was high in the third trimester of pregnancy compared to first and second trimester. The prevalence of infection is more in participants who had past history of infection. The bacterial pathogens isolated include E.coli (40.8%), Staphylococcus species (30.0%), Klebsiella species (14.1%), Proteus species (11.3%), Citrobacter species (1.4%) and Enterobacter species (1.4%). Diagnosis of urinary tract infection in pregnant women during all antenatal visits should be considered a vital care in the community. This helps to keep away from complications in pregnancy at an early stage. 


Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Fosfomycin in Various Clinical Isolates


Humaira Zafar1*,  Nouman Noor2, Kiran Tauseef Bukhari3, Sadaf Humayun2, Noor Khan Lakhnana4

1Department of Microbiology, Al Nafees Medical College & Hospital, Islamabad

2Department of Dentistry, Rawal Dental College, Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad

3Department of Haematology, Al Nafees Medical College & Hospital, Islamabad

4Department of Pathology, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad.


To identify the susceptibility pattern of Fosfomycin in various clinical isolates by estimating the frequency in terms of percentages. A convenient sampling technique was adopted for study proceedings. Total 748(n) specimens for culture and sensitivity were received in the microbiology section of pathology department. Out of these 748(n) specimens, positive cultures were seen in 144(n). For culture and sensitivity proceedings, the recommended CLSI – 2014 (clinical and laboratory standard institute) guidelines were followed. The bacterial isolation was done by biochemical tests. The zone diameter of >16 mm for 50µgm fosfomycin disc was considered as sensitive zone. While <15-12mm was considered as intermittent one and


Nutritional Composition and Acute Toxicity Potentials of Archontophoenix tukeri and Adonidia merrilli Kernels


Bassey S. Antia, Emmanuel E. Essien*, Enobong D. Udonkanga

*Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo 520101, Nigeria


Archontophoenix tukeri and Adonidia merrilli are exotic species widely grown in Nigeria as ornamental palms. In this study, the kernels of A. tukeri and A. merrilli were subjected to amino acids, fatty acids, proximate, anti-nutrients and mineral element analyses, in addition to acute toxicity evaluation. Glutamic acid (11.30 and 5.33 g/100 g) and leucine (5.9 and 4.2 g/100 g) were the most abundant essential and non-essential amino acids; the fatty acids profile revealed three major fatty acids: palmitic acid (20.14 and 11.27%), oleic acid (61.83 and 25.78%) and linoleic acid (13.05 and 55.26%); low linolenic acid levels were also observed (Ë‚1%) with 75.87 and 81.98% total unsaturated fatty acids in A. tukeri and A. merrilli respectively. Carbohydrate (85.73% and 90.15%) and oxalate contents (1927.2 and 2072.4 mg/100 g) were relatively high, while low levels of cyanide (12.05 and 65.45 mg/100 g), phytates (6.32 and 2.53 mg/100 g) and tannins (35.36 and 20.16 mg/100 g) were observed. A. tukeri indicated higher Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn and Na contents. The anti-nutrient-mineral ratios were computed and compared with critical values. Acute toxicity of A. tukeri and A. merrilli was 866.03 mg/Kg. These palms contain vital nutritional components, and with proper processing could serve as potential products for both human and animal nutrition.


Natural Products Effective for Management of Cancer - Review


Arijit Chaudhuri*, Shalini Sharma

Department of Pharmacy, Manav Bharti University, Solan- 173229, Himachal Pradesh, India


Cancer is one of the foremost causes of death and worldwide the numbers of cases of cancer are increasing progressively. Presently numerous medicines existing in the market to treat the various types of cancer but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe. The synthetic drugs are associated with huge adverse effects and patient also vanish immune system. Natural products have been the backbone and proved effective and safe in the treatment and management of cancers. Natural products remain an important source of new drugs, new drug leads and new chemical entities. The plant based drug discovery resulted mainly in the development of anticancer agents including plants, marine organisms and micro-organisms sources. Consequently, natural products are likely to deliver numerous of the chief structures with potent anticancer activity. These novel compounds enhanced anticancer activity by transforming in suitable dosage form. In this review, we emphasized the natural products traditionally used as anti-cancer agents and the new plant species scientifically validated for the anticancer activity.  


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