Alterations in Zeta Potential and Osmotic Fragility of Red Blood Cells in Hyperglycemic Conditions


Swati S. Gaikwad*, Megha N. Karemore, Jasmine G. Avari

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, R. T. M. Nagpur University, Mahatma Jyotiba Fuley Educational Campus, Amravati Road, Nagpur, 440033, Maharashtra, India


The zeta potential is an electrokinetic property of red blood cells surface and in different disease conditions this property of the erythrocytes varies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the alteration in zeta potential, lipid peroxidation and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in hyperglycemic conditions.  The zeta potential of the RBCs was measured using Zeta meter System 4.0. Lipid peroxidation, an indicator of tissue injury induced by reactive oxygen species was measured by the thiobarbituric acid assay (TBA). The percent haemolysis in terms of osmotic fragility was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (JASCO).The mean erythrocytic ZP of the control group was found to be 22.13±0.2789 mV whereas, erythrocytic ZP for diabetes mellitus patients was found to be 8.559±0.4864 mV. Similarly, when erythrocytic ZP of control pregnant women was measured, and it was found to be 21.07±0.3393 mV which were slightly lower than a control group. Mean ZP of GDM patients was found to be 10.12±0.2294 mV which was significantly less than both control group and pregnant control group. Variations in zeta potential values were accompanied by increased osmotic fragility of RBCs. It was also observed from determination of lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes, that there was formation of higher concentration of malondialdehyde with the erythrocytes of hyperglycemic patients compared to control group.The findings suggest that the zeta potential value of erythrocytes can act as a key indicator for demonstration of increased oxidative stress.


Physicochemical, Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Aegle marmelos


Asha Gupta1*, Tessy Thomas1, Shagufta Khan2

1Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Sehore (MP)- 466001, India

2GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India


The present study was aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assessment of Aegle marmelos fruits extract. The powder was evaluated for loss on drying, alcohol extractive value and aqueous extractive value. The petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extract were prepared by soxhlet extraction process. The phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed, and antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against various strains was done. The loss on drying, alcohol and aqueous extractive values were 3.9%, 14.2% and 17.6%, respectively. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, saponins, tannins phenols in ethanol extracts. The ethanol extracts demonstrated moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against S. epidermis, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. Thus in future, extract of Aegle marmelos may be beneficial for another several species of microbes.


Attenuation of Anxiety Behaviours by Xylopic Acid in Mice and Zebrafish Models of Anxiety Disorder 


Robert Peter Biney1*, Charles Kwaku Benneh2, James Oppong Kyekyeku3, Elvis Ofori Ameyaw4,  Eric Boakye-Gyasi5, Eric Woode5 

1Department of Pharmacology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

4Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

5Department of Pharmacology Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana


Anxiety disorders affect people worldwide with disabling symptoms. Xylopic acid, an ent-kaurane diterpene, exerts central nervous system depressant, opioid receptor-mediated analgesic and anti-neuropathic pain effects. Agents acting as CNS depressants can ameliorate anxiety disorders hence, this study evaluates the anxiolytic potential of xylopic acid in mice and zebrafish. Xylopic acid was given orally at 3, 10 or 30 mg kg-1 to mice or 3, 10 or 30 µM to zebrafish.  Anxiety was assessed in mice using open field (OFT), novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH), and elevated plus maze (EPM) models and in zebrafish using novel tank (NT) and scototaxis (ST) models. Additionally, xylopic acid’s activity on anxiety induced by alcohol withdrawal was also evaluated. Xylopic acid at doses 3-30 mg kg-1 reduced latency to feeding in mice in the hyponeophagia test for anxiety and also significantly reduced thigmotaxis in the OFT at 30 mg kg-1 (P<0.001). All mice given xylopic acid significantly spent more time in the open arms of the EPM (P<0.001). At 10 µM xylopic acid-treated zebrafish exhibited significant (P<0.001) reduction in time spent at bottom of novel tank but it did not reduce scototaxis in the light-dark test. Furthermore, xylopic acid attenuated increased bottom dwelling induced by alcohol withdrawal in zebrafish. The doses of xylopic acid used did not impair locomotion in the chimney test for mice. These findings indicate anxiolytic-like properties of xylopic acid in mice and zebrafish models of anxiety disorder.


C-MYC and BCL2 Expression in Normal Tissue Around Proliferative Breast Conditions in Relation to ER, PR in a Sample of Iraqi Women


Ahmed F. Hameed1*, Mustafa M. Ibraheem2, Basim Sh. Ahmed3

1Assist. Lecturer, M.Sc. Anatomy; Histology & Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964, Iraq

2Assist. Prof., Histology & Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964 Iraq

3Assist. Prof, Department of Pathology & Forensic Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964, Iraq


Breast cancer describes several subtypes of cancer of the breast that differs in clinical presentation, which reveals different gene expression and different molecular characteristics. As new advances in diagnosis and treatment emerge with an already prevalent but still curable disease, more research is required for such advanced diagnostic and prognostic parameters. A Total of 120 tissue samples were included in the current prospective study. Normal breast tissue taken from reduction mammoplasty (40 samples), normal tissue around a breast  primary ductal carcinoma (40 samples) and normal tissue around Fibroadenoma (40 samples) were enrolled in the study. Tissue samples were immunohistochemically stained for four markers: BCL2, C-MYC, ER & PR and the score results of the markers were statistically examined and correlated. There was a highly statistically significant expression of BCL2 & C-MYC in normal tissue around breast carcinoma more than other proliferative conditions, with high significant correlation with ER, PR. Though there was overexpression of C-MYC &BCL2 in all three proliferative conditions, it was more pronounced in breast cancer.


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