Microballoons: An Advance Avenue for Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System- A Review

 

Ritesh Kumar1*, Surbhi Kamboj2,Amrish Chandra3, Pawan Kumar Gautam4, Vijay Kumar Sharma2

1 IFTM University, Moradabad, 244102, Uttar Pradesh, India

2 Dr. K. N. Modi Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Modinagar,201204, Uttar Pradesh, India

3 Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, 201313, Uttar Pradesh, India

4 Department of Pharmacy, S. N. Medical College, Agra, 282002,Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract

The purpose of writing this review on microballoons is to accumulate the recent literature with a special focus on the novel technological advancements in floating drug delivery system to achieve gastric retention. Microballoons (Hollow microsphere) promises to be a potential approach for gastric retention. Microballoons drug-delivery systems are based on non-effervescent system containing empty particles of spherical shape without core ideally having a size less than 200 micrometer. Microballoons drug delivery systems have shown to be of better significance in controlling release rate for drugs having site specific absorption. The floating microballoons showed gastroretentive controlled release delivery with efficient means of enhancing the bioavailability and promises to be a potential approach for gastric retention. Optimized hollow microspheres will find the central place in novel drug delivery, particularly in safe, targeted and effective in vivo delivery promises to be a potential approach for gastric retention. They are gastroretentive drug-delivery systems, which provide controlled release properties. The advantages, limitation, methods of preparation of hollow microsphere, applications, polymers used in hollow microspheres, characterizations of microballoons and formulation aspects with various evaluation techniques and marketed products are covered in detail. 

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Comparative Study on Lipid Profile of Hypertensive Patients and Non-hypertensive Individuals in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

 

Aakash Srivastava*, BK Binawara

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are the highest cause of death in the industrialized world, and many of these deaths may be work related. Hypertension is the most common of the cardio-vascular diseases which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrial world. Stress, tension, smoking, liquors, insufficient rest, metabolic disorders, excessive consumption of tea or coffee, emotional disturbance etc. are also associated with high blood pressure. Several previous studies showed the relation between hyperlipidemia and hypertension. An excessive daily intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, and other sources of calories and subsequent disturbance of lipid profile leading to hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia are associated with obesity and, consequently, hypertension. The present study was designed to compare the serum triglyceride, cholesterol, High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) and Low Density Lipo-protein (LDL levels in hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals. While the relation between hyperlipidemia and hypertension is clearly shown, there are only a few studies which have compared the lipid profiles of hypertensive and non-hypertensive cases.  The aim and objectives of the present case-control study were to find out the relationship between serum lipids levels of the hypertensive patients with controls in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner and Department of General Medicine, Kothari Medical and Research Institute, Bikaner. Patients were selected randomly from the city, and the selected subjects were divided into two groups each comprising of 50 patients. Group I: untreated hypertension and served as study group; Group II: normotensive persons having normal Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (BP)    and served as a control group. Patients included in both the groups were assessed for lipid profile. Overall, it could be concluded that the serum lipid profile of recently diagnosed untreated hypertensive patient was deranged specially in a middle age group (the study group) as compared to healthy subjects. Based on the results obtained from the present study, it could be further envisaged that serum cholesterol; triglyceride levels are positively correlated with hypertensive patients whereas HDL-cholesterol has no significant changes with hypertension.

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Epidemiology of Childhood Asthma in Fayoum City (District) Egypt 

 

Esam Eldin Gad El Rab Ahmed*,  Ashraf Sayed Kamel,  Sayed Ali Amin, Alaa Eldin Hashem               

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Fayoum University, Fayoum-41522, Egypt

Abstract

Asthma is a major public health problem worldwide. There was a sharp increase in the global prevalence of asthma over the last two decades. Few studies evaluated asthma prevalence in Egypt. Determination of the prevalence of bronchial asthma among school children aged 6-12 years old in Fayoum city (distrect) and identification of the risk factors associated with asthma. A questionnaire-based study conducted in the period from Feb to April 2013. We used a modified written International Study of Asthma and Allergies in the (ISAAC) questionnaire (phase I) translated into Arabic language. We added questions dealing with risk factors of asthma. We distributed 2872 questionnaires in this study which was conducted on (10) primary schools included both rural and urban areas. The subjects of the study were selected by multistage random sample technique. Out of the 2872 questionnaires, only 1656 questionnaires were returned only 103 children fitted the diagnosis of asthma. The prevalence of asthma in Fayoum city (district) 6.3%. was noted in females, high socioeconomic states and small family size. The main risk factors were: the first and second birth order, overcrowding at homes, high socioeconomic status, and small family size. Respiratory tract infections, exercise, smoking, house dust mites, diet, animal and allergens were the main precipitating factors for asthmatic attacks. The prevalence of bronchial asthma among primary school children aged 6-12 years old in Fayoum district, conducted in the year 2013, was 6.3% and was equally distributed among rural and urban areas. 

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Risk Factors of Transient Early Wheezing in Infants below 2 years in Fayoum City

 

EsamEldin Gad-El-Rab Ahmad*, Hanaa Hassan Mahmoud El-Dash, Ashraf Sayed Kamel

1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Fayoum University, Fayoum-41522, Egypt

Abstract

The three different phenotypes of wheezing in infants and children are transient early wheezing, non-atopic preschool wheezing and atopic or asthmatic wheezing. Early transient wheezers suffer from wheezing only during the first two years of life due to small airways caliber being more likely to narrow and obstruct.  The main phenomena are the absence of personal history and/or family of atopy, so they are born with lung deficiency. Transient early wheezing to represent about 60% among children. There are many risk factors, which predispose to transient early wheezing such as: maternal complications during pregnancy, type of delivery, type of feeding during infancy, overweight infants, passive smoking and day care attendance during infancy. The previous risk factors were studied well in many developed countries but not in our communities including Egypt. Study these risk factors among infants between two months and two years of age and this is the first study done for this common problem among Egyptian children.  The study included 160 infants between 2 months and two years, 80 of them were diagnosed as TEW (group 1) and another 80 healthy infants as a control group. Infants were subjected to the following: Detailed history with special emphasize on gestational age -infant gender-infant weight-prenatal and natal history- history of smoking in family- type of delivery -type of feeding. History of recurrent wheezing, need for hospitalization. Full Clinical Examination 3-Investigations: chest x ray and Laboratory tests: Full picture analysis and IgE total enzyme assay. The study revealed that TEW was encountered with large percentage among infants with history of: maternal disease during pregnancy (diabetes, hypertension and urinary tract infection), caesarian section delivery, over weight infants, family history of smoking, artificial feeding, consuming cow milk during first year of life and attendance to daycare during infancy. Overweight is a new risk factor that was observed in our study. Most of the noted risk factors are similar to that reported in studies done in developed countries in addition to overweight infants are associated.

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