Toxicological Profile of Carbamazepine and Levetiracetam on Some Biochemical and Haematological Parameters in Rats

 

Theophine Chinwuba Akunne1, Sunday N. Okafor2*, Zellinjo Igweze3, Chiamaka N. Njoku3, Oluwatoyin O. Ojapinwa3

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madonna University, 510242 Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria

Abstract

The prolonged usage of antiepileptic drugs has necessitated the need to study their toxicological profiles using in experimental animals. The toxicological effects of carbamazepine (CBZ) and levetiracetam (LEV) on some biochemical and haematological parameters were evaluated in rats. Haematological parameters evaluated include packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and white blood cell (WBC), while some biochemical parameters studied were liver enzyme tests such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lipid profiles tests such as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). In addition, the body weight and morphological assessment of the vital body organs were determined. Results showed that CBZ and LEV did not significantly affect the haematological parameters. Animals treated with CBZ showed a significant increase in TC and HDL levels at 400 and 1000 mg/kg doses. There was no significant increase in the TC, HDL, LDL and TG in rats treated with LEV. CBZ and LEV treated animals at the doses of 400 and 1000 mg/kg showed a significant increase in body weights from the 6th day after commencement of treatment. There was also a significant increase in the weights of the liver, kidney and heart of the animals treated with CBZ and LEV. The colour and texture of the organs did not change. However, no appreciable weight increase was observed with the lung. 

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Evaluation of H. pylori - Eradication Triple Therapy in Iraqi Peptic Ulcer Patients according to ABO Phenotypes: a New Study

 

Rana Hussein Kutaif1,  Manal Khalid Abdulridha2Ù­, Yassir Mustafa Kamal3, Akram Ajeel Najeeb4

 1Wasit Health Directorate, Ministry of Health , Wasit-10001, Iraq

2Ù­Departmentof Clinical Pharmacy/College of Pharmacy/Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-10001, Iraq

3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology/College of Pharmacy/ Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-10001, Iraq

4Consultant gastroenterologist, Baghdad Teaching Hospital,Medical city, Baghdad-10001, Iraq

Abstract

Infection with H. pylori is an up growing  public health problem that affects approximately 50% of people in industrialized nations, and up to 80% in developing countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection had been identified as the main causes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Blood group A phenotype was associated with gastric ulcer (GU) and gastric carcinoma, while blood group O phenotype found to be associated with duodenal ulcer DU predominantly; however, no explanation for this association was received. This study was conducted to, first, determine the relationship between ABO blood groups and H. pylori infection in peptic ulcer patients, and second, to study the response to the two weeks H. pylori eradication triple therapy in peptic ulcer patients carrying different blood groups. A total of  84 patients who presented  with symptoms of PUD and showed positive endoscopic examination of PUD and evidence of H. pylori infectionby histology and stool antigen test, were divided into four groups according to ABO blood group phenotype. All H. pylori infected patients received standard H. pylori eradication triple therapy for 14 days duration. Patients were followed up by re- endoscopic examination after 2 months of treatment course. The percentage of H. pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer disease carrying blood group O was higher than other blood group phenotype. In H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, higher incidence of gastric ulcer (GU) was noticed among blood group A carriers, while higher incidence of duodenal ulcer (DU) was found among blood group O carriers when compare with other blood group phenotypes.  Fourteen days triple therapy showed lower eradication rate in H. pylori infected blood group O peptic ulcer patients, while a higher response to the standard H. pylori eradication triple therapy was found among patients with blood group B phenotype.

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Cola parchycarpa K. Schum: Chemical Evaluation of Amino Acids, Vitamins and Other Nutritional Factors in Seed, Fruit Mesocarp and Epicarp

 

Emmanuel E. Essien*, Imaobong I. Udousoro

 Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo-520101, Nigeria

Abstract

Cola parchycarpa is one of the under-utilized monkey kola plants that yield edible tasty fruits. The amino acids, vitamins, mineral elements, proximate and anti-nutrients composition of the white aril, seed and fruit epicarp were evaluated using standard procedures. The total essential amino acids ranged from 31.84-55.70 g/100 g, predominated in lysine, leucine and cysteine. The fruit pulp and epicarp contained substantial amount of ascorbic acid (6.310 and 6.646 mg/100 g) and tocopherols (7.328 and 5.314 mg/100 g), respectively including vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9 and K1. Potassium, zinc and manganese were relatively high in the seed while calcium, magnesium and iron dominated in the fruit epicarp. The proximate analysis data of the fruit pulp and epicarp were similar except in protein and lipid content. Anti-nutritional factors (phytate, oxalates, cyanide and tannins) were below permissible limits.  This is the first report on amino acids and detailed vitamins composition of C. parchycarpa. These findings indicate the rich nutritional potential of this tasty fruit and further processing into other value added products would encourage conservation and subversion of its impending extinction.

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Screening of Antistress and Anxiolytic Activities of Piper longum Fruits Extract

 

Nanjappaiah H.M.1,Patil V.P.1,MuchchandiI S.2,Chandrashekar V.M.2,Shivakumar H.1*

1P. G. Dept. of Pharmacology, BLDEAs SSM College of Pharmacy & Research Centre, Vijayapur - 586103, Karnataka, India

2B V Vs H S K College of Pharmacy, Bagalkote - 587101, Karnataka, India

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate adaptogenic and anxiolytic activities of methanol extract of Piper longum fruits at different dose levels (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) using different experimental animal models. In the present research work antistress activity was assessed by swimming endurance and immobilization stress models, and anxiolytic activity were assessed by elevated plus maze behavior of mice, light dark exploration test in mice and open field apparatus test in rats. In swimming endurance test, the mean time of swimming performance and swimming stress induced biochemical parameters such as serum cortisol, the weights of adrenal glands, ascorbic acid and cortisol levels were recorded in the adrenal gland. There was dose dependent significant increase in swimming performance time observed in mice pretreated with graded doses of the test extracts.  Animals pretreated with test extracts at different dose levels showed significant and dose dependent fall in all the biochemical parameters, as compared to the stress control animals. Treatment with standard and test extracts significantly reversed the stress induced altered hematological parameters, biochemical parameters, organs weight, GSH and LPO levels and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, nor adrenaline and serotonin levels in rat brain In immobilization stress. The test extracts demonstrated the significant increase in time spent and number of entries into open arm in elevated plus maze apparatus test and also increase in time spent and number of entries into lit box was observed in light box exploration test and reduction in time spent and number crossing into the dark compartment observed in animals pretreated with test extract. Pretreatment with test extracts demonstrated dose dependent significant increase in ambulation, rearing and self-grooming and significant decrease in fecal dropping in case of open field test.

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