Effect of Bilateral Oophorectomy and Natural Menopause on Bone Mineral Density


Nida H. Ali1, Mayyadah H. Al-Shahlanee1, Abbas M. Jasim2                      

1Dept. of Physiology & Medical Physics, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad -14132, Iraq

2Consultant Rheumatologist, Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad – 14132, Iraq


The objective of this study was to assess the effect of bilateral oophorectomy on bone mineral density in comparison with natural menopause. Bone mineral density (BMD) is  measured with dual energy X-ray DXA of lumber spine and femoral neck in 133 women, aged ranged (45 -70 years). Two surgical groups consist of 100 women either after or before, surgical after menopause SAM women with mean age (66.55 ± 1.11 years), menopause duration mean (15.88 ± 1.19 years) and body mass index BMI mean (32.09 ± 1.37 Kg /m2). Women who underwent surgery before menopause SBM the mean age (57.18 ± 0.84 years), (13.31 ± 0.83 years) the mean of menopause duration and (32.26 ± 0.7 Kg /m2) the mean of body mass index BMI. The natural menopause NM include 33 women mean age (56.45 ± 0.93 years) with (6.24 ± 0.81 years) duration of menopause and (33.49 ± 1.08 Kg /m2) BMI. The mean of BMD and T-score in lumber spine L1-L4 in SAM group was (0.84 ± 0.03 gr/cm2 and -2.32 ± 0.25) respectively, in the SBM group (BMD = 0.82 ± 0.01 gr/cm2 and T-score -2.46 ± 0.12) comparing to natural menopause group NM (BMD = 1.16 ± 0.03 gr /cm2 and T-score 0.31 ± 0.23). The mean of BMD measured for femoral neck in SAM (0.72± 0.03 gr /cm2 and T-score = - 1.54 ± 0.2), in SBM (BMD = 0.81 ± 0.81 gr/cm2 and T-score = - 0.86 ± 0.12), in NM (BMD = 0.93 ± 0.03 gr/cm2 and T-score = 0.3 6 ± 0.03). Bilateral oophorectomy associated with decrease in BMD, in addition age and duration of menopause are important factors affected on BMD.


ABO/Rhesus Blood Group and Correlation with Sickle Cell Disease and Type-II Diabetes Mellitus in South East and South-South of Nigeria


Alagwu EA1*,  Akukwu D2,  Ngwu EE1, Uloneme GC2

1Physiology Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Imo State University- 460222, Owerri

2Anatomy and Neurobiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Imo State University- 460222, Owerri


Correlation between ABO/Rhesus blood group, Sickle cell disease (SCD) and Diabetes mellitus (DM) was investigated in Okwe, Asaba, Delta State and Ihiala, Anambra State,Nigeria. 100 proven cases of sickle cell patients (HBSS) from the sickle cell clinic in the General Hospital, Okwe, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria, were studied. 200 normal individuals, 100 with genotype AA and 100 with genotype AS were taken as control for comparison from Okwe town. Furthermore, 50 proven cases of adults diabetic mellitus type2 from the diabetic clinic of our Lady’s of Lourdes Hospital Ihiala, Anambra State were studied. Samples of 50 normal adult individuals were taken from the Hospital town as control for comparison. In the ABO/Rhesus blood group and SCD, the result showed that there was a correlation between ABO/Rhesus blood group and sickle cell disease (p<0.05). It was also observed that blood group O has the highest frequency distribution among the sicklers (63%), followed by blood group B (20%), then blood group A (17%), the least was AB blood group with O% distribution. For Rhesus blood system, the prevalence of Rh positive and Rh negative was studied against the hemoglobin genotypes. Rh positive was 96%for SS, 74% for AA, and 92% for AS. Rh negative was 4% for SS, 26%for AA and 8% for AS. This showed that Rh positive has the highest prevalence in SS while Rh negative has the lowest prevalence in SS,[P ABORhesus blood group and DM, there was no correlation between ABO/Rhesus blood group and adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (P>0.05). It was also observed that blood group O (78%) was most commonly distributed in diabetes mellitus type2, followed by A (22%), blood group 0 (0%) and AB (0%) did not show any incidence of type2 diabetes mellitus. When Rh positive and Rh negative where matched against DM and the control, Rh positive was 94% in DM and 88% in control (P>0.05). Rh negative was 6% in DM and 12% in control, (P>0.05). It was observed that Rh positive was more in DM than the control, and Rh negative was more in control than in DM patient. Therefore, correlation between ABO/Rhesus blood group and diabetes mellitus type 2 was not proven. It is accordingly, concluded that ABO/Rhesus blood group has positive correlation with sickle cell disease and fell short of such correlation with diabetes mellitus.


Moringa oleifera Attenuates Crude Oil Contaminated Diet Induced Biochemical Effects in Wistar Albino Rats


Achuba FI1*, Ubogu LA2, Ekute BO3

1Department of Biochemistry, Delta State University, PMB 1, Abraka, Nigeria.

2Department of food Science, Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, Nigeria

3Chemistry Unit, School of Science and Technology, National Open University of Nigeria, 14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria


The ability of Moringa oleifera leaves to protect against crude oil-contaminated diet imposed alterations in biochemical parameters of wistar albino rats was investigated. Exposure of rats to crude oil contaminated diet resulted in hepatic injury as evidenced by significant (P<0.05) increase in the activities of serum hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP). Serum urea, creatinine and potassium ion also significantly increased. Moreover, serum sodium, calcium, chloride and bicarbonate ions significantly (P<0.05) decreased in rats exposed to crude oil contaminated diet, indicating impaired kidney function. Similarly, exposure of rats to crude oil contaminated diet significantly (P<0.05) increased serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglyceride (TAG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) but significantly decreased high-density lipoproteins (HDL) when compared to the control. Moreover, the values of serum total protein, albumin and globulin significantly reduced in rats exposed to crude oil contaminated diet compared with values in rat fed uncontaminated diet. However, supplementing crude oil contaminated diet with Moringa oleifera significantly maintained serum levels of hepatic enzymes, urea, creatinine and electrolytes close to values obtained in control rats and significantly improved lipid profile and serum proteins. Rats fed Moringa oleifera treated diets exhibited reduced TC, TAG and LDL and a higher HDL compared to rats fed with crude oil contaminated diet. Besides, rats fed Moringa oleifera treated diet had significantly higher total protein, albumin and globulin as compared with rats fed crude oil contaminated diet. Thus, this study exhibits the protective effect of Moringa oleifera supplemented diet against the adverse biochemical effects that were mediated by crude oil.


Immunohistochemical Detection of FOXP3 Shows Stimulatory Effect of Metformin on Thymus Regulatory T-Cells in Type 2 Diabetic Mice  


Sameh S. Akkila*, Mustafa M. Ibraheem, Ahmed F. Hameed


Metformin is an adjuvant drug used in the treatment of obesity and diabetes, two conditions associated with stress and chronic inflammation that affects thymus structure and function. Recent evidence suggests a complex role of metformin in thymic homeostasis. The study was designed to develop an animal model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and treat it with metformin to evaluate its effects on the thymus. In addition, its general effects on body weight and blood glucose level were also investigated. Over a period of 6 weeks, 30 albino male mice (4-5 weeks) were fed either regular chow (control group, N=10) or high fat diet (obese group). The obese group was then subjected to low dose streptozotocin induction of diabetes and divided into two subgroups, one of which was treated with metformin (N=10) while the other was not (N=10). Body weight, random blood sugar, relative thymus weight were recorded. Thymic tissue sections were stained with H & E to study general histology and with single immunohistochemical stain to detect regulatory T-cell using FOXP3 marker. Thymic corticomedullary ratio and regulator cell frequency were calculated. Metformin was successful in reducing body weight and blood glucose levels in treated animals. The thymus had higher relative weight and less cortical cellularity but more frequently counted regulatory cells. Untreated animals showed signs of thymic involution but increased corticomedullary ration in response to reduced regulator cell counts. Metformin has both direct and indirect effects in correcting metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity and diabetes. These effects are anti-inflammatory and may be responsible for stimulation of thymic immunosuppressive cells. Contrariwise, obesity and diabetes have detrimental effects on thymus structure and homeostasis.


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