Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Floating-Bioadhesive Tablet Formulated with Okra Gum as Multifunctional Polymer


*Alalor CA1, Uhumwangho MU2, Iwuagwu MA2

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, Abraka, 320001, Nigeria2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001,    Nigeria


Floating drug delivery systems and bioadhesive drug delivery systems are gastroretentive systems for increasing gastric residence time to obtain improved drug bioavailability. This study was to evaluate the floating and bioadhesive characteristics of Ciprofloxacin tablets formulated with Abelmoschus esculentus gum (okra gum).Okra gum was extracted and granules were prepared using the extracted Okra gum as well as sodium alginate and HPMC at concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10 % w/w. Ciprofloxacin floating bioadhesive (CFB) tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, in vitro buoyancy test, ex vivo bioadhesion test and drug release profiles. The floating lag time (FLT) and total floating time (TFT) for CFB tablets formulated with 10% w/w okra gum were 5.7 minutes and 8 hours respectively while the bioadhesive force was 1.324 N. Formulations of ciprofloxacin tablets containing admixtures of okra gum and sodium alginate or HPMC resulted in significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the floating lag times (≤ 3.1 minutes) and significant increase (p < 0.05) in total floating times (> 12 h). The bioadhesive force for CFB tablets containing admixtures of okra gum and sodium alginate or HPMC gave higher values in the range of 1.766 – 2.207 N. The in vitro release profiles for CFB tablets formulated with okra gum alone did not show sustained release below 10 % w/w. Batches FB10 and FB11 containing admixtures showed sustained release with maximum release of 86% at maximum time of 9 h. The dissolution profiles of tablets from batches F10 and F11 compared favourably with the profile for the commercial brand of floating ciprofloxacin tablet, MF. From the study Okra gum has shown to possess good floating and bioadhesive properties and may be utilized in the formulation gastro-retentive dosage form of ciprofloxacin which can possibly be harnessed as a targeted site-specific delivery system in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in gastric ulcer disease as well as in the treatment of Salmonella typhi induced enteric fever.


Study and Reporting of Adverse Drug Reaction Patterns Among Organ Transplant Patients Receiving Tacrolimus Therapy in a Real World Post-Marketing Experience


Shobharam Sahu*1, Poonam Rishishwar1, Chhaya Rathod2

1Faculty of Pharmaceutical science,Sri Venkateshwara University, Gajraula, UP, India

2Rajiv Gandhi college of Pharmacy, Nautanwa-Maharajganj, UP, India


With the availability of many immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of solid organ transplantation increase to a life span of patients who is receiving tacrolimus separately for End Stage of liver, heart and lung, kidney. But after all success of solid organ transplantation is purely dependent on proper course of immunosuppressive therapy. Tacrolimus is lactones antibiotic isolated from the fermentation of streptomyces tstkubaeis. This calcineurin inhibitor widely used for its immunosuppressive properties to increase patient survival and prevent graft function, organ rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in transplant patients suppresses to enzyme for the growth of B cells and T cells.  It was first approved for use to prevent graft rejection in 1994 for liver transplantation and in 1997 for kidney transplantation. The outcomes of this drug have varied due to differences in induction and maintenance therapy, drug dosing and monitoring. The aim of this study of an assessment and reporting of adverse drug reaction was to analyze the case reports of literature critically, conducted to monitor and evaluated the adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of immunosuppressive drug regimens, its causality, severity in therapy which is used various organ transplant patients and to document the pharmacotherapeutic actions taken for its management.


Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa Oil


Arif Ahmad Rather*, Kirti Jain

Department of Botany, Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazeer, Bhopal (M.P.), 462001, India


Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a consequence of accumulation of free radicals in the body. The various researches are going on globally directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. We planned to investigate the preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oil. The yield of oil of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa were 21.5% and 27.3%, respectively. Phytochemical screening was performed by using standard methods. The in vitro antioxidant study was done for Nigella sativaand Allium cepa oil by using hydrogen-donating activity, superoxide scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and reducing power assay. The result of phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, steroids and fats in Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oil. The findings of DPPH, superoxide, reducing power and H2O2 radical scavenging activity exhibited that the oil of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa showed moderately to strongly free radical scavenging activity. Hence Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oil can play a major role in alleviating the number of oxidative stress by reducing the oxidative damage to cellular component caused by Reactive oxygen species (ROS).


Multi-particulate Drug Delivery  Systems of Fenofibric Acid: Optimization of Formulation Using Statistical Experimental Design


Bala Vishnu Priya Mukkala1*, Murthy T.E.G.K2, Prameela Rani Avula3 

1Formulation research and development, RA Chem Pharma Ltd, Hyderabad-500076, Telangana, India

2Department of pharmaceutics, Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, Guntur-522101, Andhra Pradesh, India

3Department of pharmaceutics, Acharya Nagajuna University, Guntur-522510, Andhra Pradesh, India


The objective of the present research work was to develop a multi-particulate modified release system of Fenofibric acid using Wurster (Bottom spray fluid bed coating) process. Impact of various formulation variables was assessed by using statistical interpretation such as ANOVA. A 33 (three factor, three level) face centered central composite design was employed to study the effect of independent variables (concentration of ER Polymer, plasticizer and pore former), on dependent variables (drug release at 2.5th h & 6th h). Optimization of the formulation variables was done by fitting experimental data to the software program (Design Expert). The design space for formulation variables was developed. Fabricated pellets were characterized for various physico-chemical parameters. In vitro release data of the optimized formulation was fitted into various kinetic equations. The optimized formulation showed a desired  drug release at both 2.5th h and 6th h as 17.5 ± 2.28% & 87.1 ± 0.75% respectively. The drug release from the capsules followed first order kinetics and controlled by non fickian transport. The information acquired in this study recommends that the multi-particulates of Fenofibric acid can be effectively intended to give a delayed  release of Fenofibric acid and thus enhanced bioavailability.


Read More