Voyage into Curcumin Embedded Delivery Systems of Natural Polymers to Ameliorate Solubility and Bioavailability Limitations

 

Roopa G1, Roopa Karki2, Jayanthi C1*, Mukunthan S1, Hanumanthachar Joshi1, Goli Divakar2

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Sarada Vilas College of Pharmacy, Mysore, Karnataka, India

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Acharya and BM Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Abstract

The turmeric (Curcuma longa) plant, a perennial herb of the ginger family, is an agronomic crop in south and southeast tropical Asia. The rhizome is coined as the most useful part of the plant and a staple in all cooking and treatment of medicinal purposes include antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic and anti-inflammatory. It has a wide array of affinity to biological proteins and inhibits various kinases. Curcumin modulates the activity of several transcription factors, regulates the functioning of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and apoptic proteins. Recent preclinical and animal studies revealed the anti-proliferative, anti-invasive and antiangiogenic activity5,6. Clinically, Curcumin is proven to be safe while administering at larger doses, but due to poor aqueous solubility, quick systemic elimination, scanty tissue absorption and degradation at alkaline pH, which restrains its bioavailability, following strategies are used to enhance the bioavailability: (i) adjuvants like piperine which interferes with glucuronidation, (ii) liposomal curcumin, (iii) nanoparticles, (iv) Curcumin phospholipid complex and (v) structural analogues of curcumin. (VI) Micronisation and nanonisation (VII) self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS), (vii) cyclodextrin inclusions, (IX) solid dispersions (X) Nanoemulsions, nanospheres, nanobeads, nanofibres7. The intention of this comprehension is to present a retrospective and prospective gist of applications of innovative delivery systems of Curcumin employed by the researchers to optimize Curcumin delivery using natural polymers with the objective of enhancing solubility and bioavailability, which might revolutionize the therapy of challenging chronic disorders of mankind.

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Causes and Prevention

 

Noha E. Ibrahim1, Wael M. Aboulthana2* and Ram Kumar Sahu3

1Microbial Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth St., P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt (Affiliation ID: 60014618)

2Biochemistry Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth St., P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt (Affiliation ID: 60014618)

3University College of Pharmacy, Pt. Deendayal Upadhyay Memorial Health Sciences and Ayush University of Chhattisgarh, Raipur (C.G.), India

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver and occurs predominantly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. It is considered as the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide with over 500,000 people affected. Incidence of the HCC is highest in Asia and Africa, where the endemic high prevalence of hepatitis B and C strongly predisposes to development of the chronic liver disease and subsequent development of HCC. In most cases, the cause of liver cancer is long-term damage and scarring of the liver cirrhosis that may be caused by viral infections (Virus B or C) or non-viral causes such as non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), autoimmune diseases, inflammation of the liver (chronic), obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, smoking, iron overload in the body (hemochromatosis) and the exposure to aflatoxin. The recent studies concluded that vaccination and the antiviral treatment are the most important ways for the HCC prevention.

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Rhizobacteria Suppress Fusarium wilt and Early Blight Diseases in Tomato Grown with Organic Fertilizers

 

Adedire O. M.1*, Fajobi A. K.1, Ibitoye D. O.1, Osesusi A. O.2, Pitan A. A.3

1Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B 5029 Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria

2Ekiti State University, P.M.B 5363 Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti, Nigeria

3National Horticultural research Institute, P.M.B 5432 Idi-ishin, Oyo, Nigeria

Abstract

Due to the established toxic effects of agrochemical accumulation in humans, there is an increasing demand for organic agricultural production in Nigeria. The production of highly nutritious and daily consumed crops like tomato through organic farming (using biosupplements) would go a long way in reducing the risks associated with the consumption of inorganic pesticides and fertilizers. In order to investigate the effects of rhizobacterial biosupplement on the resistance and yield of tomato grown with organic fertilizers, the predominant rhizosphere bacteria associated with healthy tomato isolated in this study (Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus macerans and Bacillus cereus) were added as a consortium to improve the availability of organic nutrients to plants. Performance measures including the numbers of fruit, branches, leaves, plant height, days to first flowering and days to 50% flowering at 20.00, 17.67, 176.33, 73.33 cm, 70.43 and 78.00 were all better (higher or lower) in treated tomato plants than untreated set. A significant reduction in percentage prevalence was recorded for Fusarium wilt, as well as Early blight diseases on treated plants (seed treatment with rhizobacterial consortium) compared to plants grown from untreated seeds. However, seed treatment appeared to be less effective in the treatment of Bacterial wilt disease of tomato, with percentage prevalence of 41.70 and 42.90 recorded for treated and untreated plants at nine weeks after planting respectively. It could be concluded that the application of rhizobacterial consortium (as seed treatment) improved the yield and resistance of tomato to Fusarium wilt and Early blight diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria solani respectively.

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Physio-chemical properties and Antimicrobial Activity of Triphala Masi

 

Dr. Riya Sinha*, Dr. Jeevesh K.B.

Department of Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana, Ramakrishna Ayurvedic Medical College, Hospital and Research Center, Bengaluru-560064, Karnataka, India

Abstract

Triphala is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of the dried fruits of three medicinal plants Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Phyllanthus embelica. Triphalais also main ingredient of Triphala Masi and practiced very less which is unexplored. In consideration of all above the present study was planned to make an attempt to evaluate the pharmaceutical analysis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Triphala Masi. The Triphala Masi was prepared by heating at 450 °C for 150 min. The physical values like total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, loss on drying, pH value and loss on drying were determined. The organoleptic characters of prepared Triphala Masi were studied. The prepared Masi were black colour with charcoal like taste and burnt smell. Total ash, Acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and loss on drying of Triphala Masi fulfill the standards criteria. pH value suggested to be acidic for Triphala Masi. Triphala Masi exhibited a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. The above findings of pharmaceutical, analytical profile and antimicrobial study of Triphala Masi indicates that the formulation was stable and has effective antibacterial activity. 

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