Estimation of Gallic Acid in Different Commercial Samples of Amruthotharam Kashayam by Using HPLC


Prashant S Bhokardankar1,  Balasubramani2, Manjiri  Prashant Bhokardankar3

1*Professor, Department of Rasshastra- B.K. Siddhakala Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Sangamner, India

2Manager R&D, AVT Natural Products Pvt.Ltd., Cochin, India

3Ayurved Expert and Physician, Sangamner, India


Amruttotharam kasayam (AK) is used by a practitioners of Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) for ailments like chronic fever. Commercial AK samples were collected from the local market in Coimbatore, India and subjected to HPLC conditions using Gallic acid as a marker. Mean value of Gallic acid in commercial samples was found to be 2.93% while reference range was 2.80-4.44%.


Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Wound Healing Active Compounds From Piper nigrum L. Berries Extract in Malaysia


Chin Mee Wong1*, Jing Jing Ling1, Dr. Paul M. Neilsen2,3, Dr. Siaw San Hwang3

1Department of Research and Development, Malaysian Pepper Board, Lot 1115,  Jalan Utama, Pending Industrial Area, 93450 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

2School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, Bruce Highway, 4702, North Rockhampton, QLD, Australia

3Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology (Sarawak Campus), Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia


The study aimed to further evaluate the wound healing property of P. nigrum L. using bioassay-guided fractionation method. The ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum L. was fractionated in two stages using column chromatography and preparative reversed phase C18 HPLC, respectively. Significant wound healing properties screened using the scratch wound assay was observed through the cell migration assay in fraction number three (PNE3) out of the 14 fractions, exhibiting 36.7% and 43.8% closure of wound gap within 20 hours at concentration of 0.3 and 1.0 µg/mL, respectively. Sub-fractions which were further fractionated from PNE3 showed comparatively reduced wound healing activity using the same bioassay. The sub-fractions were also compared to Piperine, a major component of P. nigrum L. and the results were comparable. This experimental study revealed that Piperine works together with other compounds in P. nigrum L. to improve wound healing as claimed by those home remedy.


Retinal Renin-Angiotensin System Modulators: A Recent Implication for Therapy in Glaucomatous Patients


Wrood S. Al-khfajy1, Ahmed Hamed Jwaid2, Zakariya Al-Mashhadani1

1Mustansiriyah University, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Baghdad, Iraq

2University of Baghdad, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Baghdad, Iraq


Glaucoma is the ultimate commonly acquired optic neuropathy. It signifies a public health challenge since it causes an irreversible blindness. The single known treatment of the disease is decreasing of intraocular pressure (IOP), which has been revealed to lessen glaucoma progress in a diversity of large proportions of clinical trials. Herein in this literature, we briefly define the optical Renin Angiotensin system (RAS) signaling pathway and define the most essential components, physiological actions of major angiotensin peptides, and the Renin Angiotensin system blockers. And discuss the potential implications of their modulators as a new therapeutic target in glaucoma. The literature has shown that the individual RAS modulators including, Angiotensin converting enzymes 1(ACE1) inhibitors, Angiotensin converting enzymes 2 (ACE2) Activators, Angiotensin receptor-1 (AT-1) blocker, and renin inhibitors have a potentials role in modulation of aqueous humour homodynamic, by neuroprotection of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and acceleration of the aqueous humour outflow. In conclusion, RAS modulators have an imperious role in lowering IOP, these compounds will pave the approach for prospect innovation, improvement, and publicizing of novel drugs to treat glaucoma and therefore, aid save vision for millions of people suffering with this slow progressive optic neuropathy.


Correlaton of Primary Dengue Viral Infection With Body Mass Index (BMI)


Dr. Humaira Zafar1*, Dr. Kiran Tauseef2*, Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Lodhi3*

1Assoc Prof. of Pathology, Consultant Microbiologist, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad

2Assoc Prof. of Pathology, Consultant Haematologist Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad

3Professor & Head Deptt of Physiology, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad 


The objective of this study is to assess the correlation of body mass index (BMI) with primary dengue viral infection in urban and rural population of district Rawalpindi. Descriptive Cross Sectional Comparative Study. Microbiology Department, Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Affiliated with Rawalpindi Medical College (RMC), Rawalpindi. It was carried out from 1st March 2010 to 30th September 2011. A Stratified random sampling was adopted for 240 (N) subjects residents of urban and rural areas of District Rawalpindi. Urban residents were 144(n) while rural ones were 96(n). The height in meter square and weight in kilogram (kg) were the parameters used to calculate BMI. A 3ml venous blood sample was drawn from each participant for the detection of IgG antibodies against dengue virus by 3rd generation ELISA (Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay). The prevalence of primary Dengue viral infection (DVI) for urban residents   according to the current study is 34.7% (n=50 out of the total 144 subjects).  While 19.7% prevalence of primary DVI (n=19 out of the total 96 subjects) was noted for the residents of Rural strata. The correlation of primary DVI with five categories of BMI amongst urban and rural residents is evaluated by applying chi square test. The p-Value was not found to be significant for any of the five categories of BMI either an urban or rural resident. There is no significant association of primary dengue viral infection with BMI of an individual. 


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