C-MYC and BCL2 Expression in Normal Tissue Around Proliferative Breast Conditions in Relation to ER, PR in a Sample of Iraqi Women


Ahmed F. Hameed1*, Mustafa M. Ibraheem2, Basim Sh. Ahmed3

1Assist. Lecturer, M.Sc. Anatomy; Histology & Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964, Iraq

2Assist. Prof., Histology & Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964 Iraq

3Assist. Prof, Department of Pathology & Forensic Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964, Iraq


Breast cancer describes several subtypes of cancer of the breast that differs in clinical presentation, which reveals different gene expression and different molecular characteristics. As new advances in diagnosis and treatment emerge with an already prevalent but still curable disease, more research is required for such advanced diagnostic and prognostic parameters. A Total of 120 tissue samples were included in the current prospective study. Normal breast tissue taken from reduction mammoplasty (40 samples), normal tissue around a breast  primary ductal carcinoma (40 samples) and normal tissue around Fibroadenoma (40 samples) were enrolled in the study. Tissue samples were immunohistochemically stained for four markers: BCL2, C-MYC, ER & PR and the score results of the markers were statistically examined and correlated. There was a highly statistically significant expression of BCL2 & C-MYC in normal tissue around breast carcinoma more than other proliferative conditions, with high significant correlation with ER, PR. Though there was overexpression of C-MYC &BCL2 in all three proliferative conditions, it was more pronounced in breast cancer.


Regeneration of Aegle marmelos (l.) Through Enhanced Axillary Branching from Cotyledenory Node


Asha Gupta1*, Tessy Thomas1, Shagufta Khan2 

1Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Bhopal (MP)- 462022, India

3GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India


A complete protocol is standardized for in vitro micropropogation of Aegle marmelos for the first time using cotyledonary nodes derived through invitro raised seedlings. Higher percentage of direct multiple shoots were regenerated from cotyledonary nodal segments through forced axillary branching. The cotyledonary nodes of invitro raised seedlings were used as explants for shoot formation on MS Medium supplemented with Cytokinins (BAP) and Auxins (NAA), either alone or in combinations. Maximum (80%) shoots having shoot length of 2-3 cm were achieved on MS medium fortified with BAP (1.0 mg/l) and NAA (0.5mg/l). By repeating sub culturing of the cotyledonary node on shoot multiplication medium followed by shoot elongation medium after each harvest of the newly formed shoots. Thus, from a single cotyledonary node, about 20-25 shoots were obtained. Shoots formed in vitro were best rooted on MS medium supplemented with 1.0-2.0 mg/l Napthalene acetic acid(NAA).


Antioxidant, Anti-alzheimer and Anti-parkinson activity of Artemisia nilagirica Leaves with Flowering Tops


Pradeep Pal1*, A.K. Ghosh2

1Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical Studies, Ujjain (M.P.)-456664, India

2IFTM University, Muradabad (U.P.)- 244102, India


Presently peoples are loaded with stress and leads to various neurodegenerative disorders like anxiety, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant, anti-alzheimer and anti-parkinson activity of Artemisia nilagirica leaves with flowering tops extracts. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Artemisia nilagirica leaves with flowering tops were processed for evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity namely hydrogen-donating activity, superoxide scavenging activity, total polyphenol content, total flavonol content and reducing power assay. The object recognition and Y-Maze test were used to evaluate the anti-alzheimer`s activity of extract. The different parameters like catalepsy (bar test), locomotor activity (actophotometer test), and muscle activity (rotarod test) were measured in all animals for anti-parkinson activity. The findings of in vitro antioxidant study demonstrated that ethanol extract has maximum antioxidant properties compared to aqueous extract. Hence the ethanol extract of Artemisia nilagirica was selected for screening of anti-alzheimer and anti-parkinson activity. The administration of ethanol extract of Artemisia nilgirica exhibited significant anti-alzheimer and anti-parkinson activity. The findings of anti-alzheimer and anti-parkinson activity ethanol extract of Artemisia nilagirica demonstrated that this plant have neuroprotective properties.


Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Floating-Bioadhesive Tablet Formulated with Okra Gum as Multifunctional Polymer


*Alalor CA1, Uhumwangho MU2, Iwuagwu MA2

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, Abraka, 320001, Nigeria2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001,    Nigeria


Floating drug delivery systems and bioadhesive drug delivery systems are gastroretentive systems for increasing gastric residence time to obtain improved drug bioavailability. This study was to evaluate the floating and bioadhesive characteristics of Ciprofloxacin tablets formulated with Abelmoschus esculentus gum (okra gum).Okra gum was extracted and granules were prepared using the extracted Okra gum as well as sodium alginate and HPMC at concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10 % w/w. Ciprofloxacin floating bioadhesive (CFB) tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, in vitro buoyancy test, ex vivo bioadhesion test and drug release profiles. The floating lag time (FLT) and total floating time (TFT) for CFB tablets formulated with 10% w/w okra gum were 5.7 minutes and 8 hours respectively while the bioadhesive force was 1.324 N. Formulations of ciprofloxacin tablets containing admixtures of okra gum and sodium alginate or HPMC resulted in significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the floating lag times (≤ 3.1 minutes) and significant increase (p < 0.05) in total floating times (> 12 h). The bioadhesive force for CFB tablets containing admixtures of okra gum and sodium alginate or HPMC gave higher values in the range of 1.766 – 2.207 N. The in vitro release profiles for CFB tablets formulated with okra gum alone did not show sustained release below 10 % w/w. Batches FB10 and FB11 containing admixtures showed sustained release with maximum release of 86% at maximum time of 9 h. The dissolution profiles of tablets from batches F10 and F11 compared favourably with the profile for the commercial brand of floating ciprofloxacin tablet, MF. From the study Okra gum has shown to possess good floating and bioadhesive properties and may be utilized in the formulation gastro-retentive dosage form of ciprofloxacin which can possibly be harnessed as a targeted site-specific delivery system in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in gastric ulcer disease as well as in the treatment of Salmonella typhi induced enteric fever.


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