Risk Factors, Management and Other Correlates of Peptic Ulcer Disease in a University Community in South-South Nigeria


Eniojukan JF1*, Okonkwo OC2 and Adje UD2

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Niger Delta University, PMB 071, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Delta State University, PMB 1, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria


The most common causes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) are Helicobacter pylori infection and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).Treatment choices include standard triple therapy. This study evaluated the patterns of prevalence, life-style risk factors and correlates of management of PUD among Staff and Students of Delta State University, Abraka Campus, Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was initiated among 450 willing staff and student respondents. A total of 126 respondents that had been diagnosed for PUD were further evaluated for prevalence and patterns, confounding life-style factors, drug therapy and other correlates of PUD management by using self-designed, pre-tested questionnaires that addressed the objectives of the study. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version16.0 (SPSS Inc. Chicago Illinois). Duodenal Ulcer (DU) had a higher prevalence than Gastric Ulcer (GU) in a ratio of 1.5:1. The prevalence of GU was higher among Staff, Males and those older than 35 years; DU had a higher prevalence among the Students, Females and 16-35 yrs age group. The greatest life-style risk factors identified were consumption of NSAIDs, Tobacco and Alcohol. Regarding drug treatment, over 90% of drugs prescribed were antibiotics; nearly all respondents claimed to experience side-effects which included Diarrhea, Abdominal Pain and Headache; nearly all respondents often adhered to instructions to avoid Alcohol. In this population, PUD prevalence and pattern was structured along gender and age. There were issues with life-styles which could have contributed to the pathophysiology of PUD. Patients experienced some side-effects that affected adherence to instructions. Management seemed appropriate with the use of triple therapies. However, there is still a dire need for strategic health education on PUD risk factors and self-care practices.


High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantification of Gallic Acid in Simhanada Guggulu


Shilpa Jain1, Neha Jain2*, Mohan Lal Kori2, Abhishek Kumar Jain3

1Sagar Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Sagar, 470002, M. P., India,

2Vedica College of B. Pharmacy, R.K.D.F. University, Bhopal, 462037, M.P., India

3Sagar Institute of Research Technology & Science – Pharmacy, Bhopal, 462037, M.P., India


Marker compounds quantification with new analytical tools and methods is necessary for establishing the authenticity and usage of Ayurvedic or herbal formulations. Simhanada guggulu or guggul is one of the supportive Ayurvedic medicines for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and used in various disorders in Ayurveda such as limping, anemia, gout, disease of skin, cough, abdominal lump, pain digestive impairment. Simhanada guggulu is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation made by some selected herbs. The rejuvenating and tonic properties of ‘Simhanada guggulu’ are considered majorly due to their antioxidant principles, which in turn is due to the presence of phenolic compounds. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for quantitative determination of the gallic acid in ‘Simhanada guggulu’. The acidic mobile phase used in RP18 column which enabled efficient separation of gallic acid. A binary gradient with mobile phase containing solvent A (Acetonitrile) and solvent B (water: 0.3% O-Phosphoric Acid) was used for analysis. Elution was carried out at flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Pure gallic acid Rt was found to be 5.29 min and peak with same Rt was also observed in prepared formulation. Gallic acid content of prepared formulation was found to be 2.28 %. The developed HPLC-UV method is simple, rapid and help as tool for the standardization of Simhanda guggulu.


Preliminary Phyochemical Analysis and Characterization of Flavonoid Moiety from Vitex negundo Leaves Origin in Madhya Pradesh State by HPLC Study 


Firdous Ahmad Dar1*, Kirti Jain2, Bharti Jain3,  Madhuri Modak1

1Government Motilal Vigyan Mahavidyalaya,  Jahangirabad, Bhopal-462004, Madhya Pradesh, India

2Govt. Science and Commerce College Benazir, Jahangirabad, Bhopal-462008, Madhya Pradesh, India

3Sarojini Naidu Govt Girls PG Autonomous College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India


In the present study leaves of an important medicinal plant Vitex negundo was subjected to a phytochemical screening, flavonoid content and characterization of flavonoids moiety of Vitex negundo leaves extracts. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared, and further screened for preliminary phytochemical test. The quantification of quercetin was investigated in ethanol extract by HPLC study. Preliminary phytochemical revealed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Vitex negundo. The ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts investigated for antioxidant activity, and ethanol extract indicates the presence of highest quantity of flavonoids and polyphenol compared to other extracts. The HPLC chromatogram confirmed the flavonoids moiety was quercetin in ethanol extract, and the yield of quercetin was 42.18 ng/ml


Management of Diabetes and Complication: Herbal Therapies  


Triveni Kanwar, Amit Roy, Pushpa Prasad*

Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur, Chhattisgarh – 493111, India


Diabetes mellitus is a universal metabolic disease characterized by means of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyper aminoacidemia and hypoinsulinaemia. It leads to diminish in insulin, secretion and insulin action. Insulin is natural hormone secreted commencing the β‐ cells of pancreas which help out the cells to uptake glucose molecules from the blood flow. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic autoimmune disease related by selective damage of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. There are lots of multiple agents obtainable to control and to care for diabetic patients, although total recovery from diabetes has not been reported up to this time. Alternative in the direction of these synthetic agents, plants and nutrients supply a potential source of hypoglycemic drugs and are extensively used in some traditional systems of medicine toward prevent diabetes. Conventional systems of medicines with the perspectives of protection, efficiency, and quality will controls.


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