Age-related Changes in the Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70 and 90 on the Gastric Mucosa During Gastric Ulcer Healing


Ajayi Ayodeji Folorunsho1, Aniviye Blessing Oluwafunke1, Kehinde Busuyi David2, Akintola Adebola Olayemi3

1Department of Physiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomosho, Nigeria

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria


Heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (HSP-70 and HSP-90) are associated with gastroprotective and ulcer healing potentials. Reports in literatures have shown that age affects gastric ulcer healing, but the role of these heat shock proteins in relation to age has not been fully understood. This study, therefore, investigated changes in the expression of HSP-70 and HSP-90 in the gastric mucosa of 3, 6 and 18-month old rats during healing of Acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Male Wister rats (aged 3, 6 and 18 months) were divided into 3 groups according to their ages. Acetic acid ulcer model was used for this study. Ulcer area, oxidative stress, antioxidant markers, HSP-70 and HSP-90 concentration by ELISA and expression by immunohistochemistry was assessed. Results obtained indicate the highest percentage area healed on day 14 in 3 months old rats (100%), while percentage healing for 6 and 18 months old rats was 89.00% and 55.29%, respectively. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was directly proportional to age, while antioxidant enzyme (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) activities were inversely proportional to age. The concentration and expression of HSP-70 were inversely proportional to age while HSP-90 had directly proportionality to age. The histological architecture also confirmed the faster rate of healing in 3-month old rats recorded in this study.This study indicates that HSP-70 and HSP-90 play different roles in age-related healing of gastric ulcers.


Study Effect of Camphor fumes on the Pulmonary Functions


Mmehime F O1, Alagwu D N2, Ezekwe A S2, Nwankwo A A1, Alagwu E A2

1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Abia State University, PMB 2000 Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

2Department  of Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Medicine ,Imo State University PMB 2000, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria


Effect of occupational exposure to  camphor fumes on the pulmonary function was studied using one hundred (100) selected Igbo women working in camphor industry in Aba,Abia State, Sought East Nigeria, exposed to camphor fumes for over 15years (test subjects). They were compared with age, body weight and height marched control who were mostly house wives and civil servants not exposed to any known fumes or air pollutants and with no history of chest infections or spinal cord injury. Lung function indices investigated to include  Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume per second (FEV1),ration of FEV1/FVC expressed as percentage (FEV1%)  and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). The study which lasted for 4 months, was carried out using a Vitalograph Spirometer and Peak  Expiratory Flow Meter. Results obtained  showed  statistically significant reduction in lung function indices (FVC,FEV1 and PEFR)  for workers exposed to camphor  fumes (test)  compared to the  control subjects(P<0.001).  However,FEV1% in the Test group was 89.1% compared with the control (98.0%).Although both groups appeared normal and within normal values with no statistical difference but in some lung diseases like pulmonary fibrosis and other similar lung conditions,FEV1% may  appear normal, yet there is derangement  in pulmonary  functions. This is not the case in this present study which showed restrictive pattern of lung defect as shown by the significant statistical results. The result of mean values of anthropometric parameters which included age, height, body weight and body mass index obtained showed that  the test and control subjects were statistically not significant when compared (P>0.05). It was not possible to determine the effects of environmental factors like carbon dioxide (CO2) carbon monoxide (CO) and other gaseous fumes emitted during the processing period. It is therefore concluded that camphor fumes contributed significantly to the disorder observed in this study.


Food Chemicals Induces Toxic Effect on Health: Overview


Mukta Sharma1, Anupama Rajput1*, Chhaya Rathod2,  Shobharam Sahu2

1Department of Chemistry, FET, MRIIRS, Faridabad-121001, India

2Rajiv Gandhi college of Pharmacy, Nautanwa-Maharajganj, UP-273164,India


Production of food and its preservation for long time may involve addition of chemicals. Hence, chemical substances can play an important role in food production and preservation. For.e.g. the additives in the food prolong the shelf life of foods; colours, make food more attractive. Flavouring agents like aldehydes make food tastier. Unlike any other industry, agriculture is also a part of industry. The agriculture industry relies heavily on large number of chemicals which may be toxic in nature. Some of these chemicals may get absorbed by our body. Accordingly the use of chemicals involved in production, harvesting (collection), processing, packing, transport, marketing and consumption creates deleterious effect on both human and ecology. Majority of the additives in the food may lead to headache, nausea, weakness and difficulty in breathing. The research on nerve cells has shown these chemicals to cause toxic effect on nerve cells. Although the toxicants cannot be avoided, but the level can be reduced by adopting or making use of organic, sustainable and less toxic options.


Recent Trends in Methods & Calculations of Adjusting Isotonicity


Ajay Kumar*, V.K. Maurya

R. K. Pharmacy College, Kashipur, Surai, Sathiaon, Azamgarh, India


Lachrymal fluid is isotonic with blood having Associate in nursing isotonicity value like that of a 0.9% NaCl resolution. Ideally, Associate in nursing ophthalmic resolution ought to have this isotonicity value; however the attention will tolerate isotonicity values as low as that of a 0.6% NaCl resolution and as high as that of a two NaCl resolution while not marked discomfort. Some ophthalmic solutions square measure essentially hypertonic so as to reinforce absorption and to supply a level of the active ingredients robust enough to exert a prompt and effective action. The quantity of such resolution used is little as a result of, on administration; the dilution with lachryma fluid takes place apace with stripped discomfort from the hyper tonicity that is merely temporary. However, any adjustment toward isotonicity by dilution with tears is negligible wherever massive volumes of solutions square measure used as colliery to clean the eyes. It is, therefore, vital that solutions used for this purpose be around isotonic.


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