Trends in the Incidence of Cancer in Eritrean Hospitals andEritrean National Health Laboratory 2000-2010


Hagos Adom1+, Daniel Tesfamichael1+, Hawaz Weldu1+, Mengisteab Hailemichael1+, Dawit Eman1, TesfamariamMehari2, Gebrehiwet Semere3, Faisal M. Fadlelmola1,4,*

1Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara-8566, Eritrea

2Pathology Department, ENHL, Asmara-P.O. Box-1686, Eritrea

3Oncology Department, Orotta Referral Hospital, Asmara-P.O.Box-5825, Eritrea

4Centre for Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum-321, Sudan

+ - The first four authors contributed equally to this work


Eritrea is one of the developing countries located in the Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa. Eritrea is experiencing a growing cancer problem, but little is presently known on tumor patterns, cancer epidemiology and ethnic or environmental cancer risk factors. A retrospective study was carried out on the cancer incidence in hospitals of Eritrea and Eritrean National Health Laboratory (ENHL) from 2000 to 2010 using data recorded from the Management Information System (MIS) in ENHL that recorded all cancer cases from across the country. The main objectives of this study were to review the current status of knowledge, summarizing local data, as well as to provide the first baseline data on the cancer incidence in Eritrea. This study was carried out retrospectively and quantitatively by collecting, abstracting, analyzing, coding and interpreting of data recorded in MIS at ENHL in the eleven years of study using CanReg5 software. Generally 19,636 numbers of cases were confirmed by cytology and histology recorded at MIS through the year of 2000 to 2010; out of these 9,482 cases were positive for cancer. From the total positive cancer cases, 39.18% were males and 60.82% were females. The age standardized rate for all cancers in Eritrean hospitals and ENHL from 2000 to 2010 both in men and women combined were 20.3 per 100,000.The rate was higher in women 11.2 per 100,000 than men 9.1 per 100,000. In general, it can be concluded from this research that the incidence of cancer in Eritrean hospitals and ENHL were increased annually from 2000 to 2010, especially in females.The trend of the incidence is increasing with age, therefore the gradual aging of the population might increase the number of cancer cases in Eritrea.


Phytochemical and Biochemical Studies of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)


Amal M. El-Feky1 and Wael M. Aboulthana2 

1Pharmacognosy Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Biochemistry Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt 


Salvia is one of the major genuses belonging to Lamiaceae family. It is historically well known by its therapeutic applications. Salvia officinalis L. is a common herbal plant known as common sage. Itis used in the food and beverage industries due to its powerful antimicrobial activity against several gram positive and negative bacteria. It contains high percentage of the essential oil due to the presence of external glandular structures that produce volatile oil. It is rich in the biologically active constituents which are represented mainly by polyphenolic compounds. These phenolic compounds are characterized by presence of one or more aromatic rings with one or more hydroxyl groups. The previous studies showed that water extract of this plant prevented growth of colorectal cancer and human prostate carcinoma cells. This might refer to its ability to decrease the tissue lesions occurred as a result of oxidative stress. It showed radioprotective effect against irradiation through lowering lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and NO in brain tissue and elevating activities of the antioxidant enzymes. It showed antiinflammatory effects by reducing marrow acute phase response and NO synthesis. Also, it showed antagonistic effect against Aluminum neurotoxicity due to reducing the oxidative stress and improving the antioxidant status and particularly by inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase activity.


Anti-oxidant Activity of Novel Compound (AVO) Derived from L-arginine 


Orass S. Kahyoon, Mohammed A. AL-Diwan, Wasfi A. Al-Masoudi

Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Chemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, University ofBasra, Iraq


The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of AVO in alleviating Hematological and serum biochemical alterations induced by cadmium chloride toxicity in rats. 32 adult male rats were divided in to 4 groups (8 rats each for each group: Control group received normal saline by i.p injection and served as a control. Treated group I received AVO daily at 72 mg/kg body weight (B.W.) by ip injection. Treated group II administered CdCl2 daily at dose 225 mg/kg B.W. by i.p injection. Treated group III administered of CdCl2 daily at a dose of 225 mg/kg B.W. by i.p injection and after one hour of CdCl2   administration the treated rats given the new compound AVO at dose 72 mg/kg B.W. by i.p injection. The obtained results indicated that cadmium chloride possesses a deleterious effect on blood cytology, induce oxidative damage, hepato-renal dysfunction, increase of MDA and cause clear changes on the sexual hormone. The administration of AVO with cadmium chloride minimized the hazard effects of cadmium chloride, it improved RBCs count, PCV, Hb concentration ,total and differential WBCs count and blood indices Diminished the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA).Moreover, it ameliorates the activities of AST, ALT, ALP lipid profiles, bilirubin, urea, uric acid, protein and glucose. 


Evaluation of Management Outcome of Adolescent Type-1 Diabetes Patients in Selected Clinics in Calabar, Nigeria


Nwangwa JN1, Seriki SA2*, Nyoro IK1, Lelei SA1

Department of Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Department of Human Physiology, College of Medicine, Bingham University, Karu – 900110, Nigeria


Diabetes mellitus (DM), is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels resulting from defects in inulin absorption over a prolonged period. This research was carried out to evaluate the management outcome in Type-1 diabetes adolescents in Calabar, Nigeria. Nineteen (19) diabetic adolescent patients attending selected clinics in Calabar and another 19 age-and-sex matched healthy adolescents were recruited for this research. Glycaemic control was assessed using fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and Glycated haemoglobin concentration (HbAic%). Anthropometric parameters (height, weight, BMI) in adolescent Diabetes mellitus (DM) and control groups were also measured. Blood pressure in diabetic and control subjects were equally measured. Mean age of diabetic male and female were not statistically significant compared with male and female control groups. Average age of onset of illness in diabetic males and females were also not significant, and the same result was observed in duration of illness. Findings revealed that baseline fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbAIC%) values of the diabetic adolescents were significantly (P<0.001) higher than values in control group. There was a significant (P<0.01) decrees in anthropometric parameters of diabetics compared with controls. Significant negative correlation was observed between father’s educational status and FBG (r= -0.546*) and negative correlation in glycated haemoglobin (HbAIC %)  (r= -0.464*) levels in diabetic group.  Glycated haemoglobin appeared to be a very dependable marker for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in adolescents. Adolescent female diabetics have better management outcome compared to males. Combined therapy and insulin therapy resulted in improved glycaemic control and general wellbeing.    


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