Study on Antimicrobial Potential of Selected Non-antibiotics and its Interaction with Conventional Antibiotics

 

Michael Hadera1, Selam Mehari1, N. Saleem Basha1*, Nebyu D. Amha1 and Yacob Berhane2

1Pharmaceutics Unit, School of Pharmacy, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, P.O Box.8566, Eritrea, North East Africa

2Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Professions, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, P.O Box.8566, Eritrea,     North East Africa

Abstract

The escalating levels of antimicrobial drug resistance render it indispensable to explore newer drugs with lesser degrees of toxicity and with fewer chances of developing resistance. Various studies on the discovery of novel antimicrobials have found different degrees of antimicrobial activity in commonly used medicines with diverse pharmacological actions i.e., non-antibiotics. The present work aimed to describe qualitatively and quantitatively in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs i.e., Acetyl salicylic acid, Methyldopa, Propranolol and Fluoxetine alone and in combination with three conventional antimicrobial drugs i.e., Ciprofloxacin, Benzyl penicillin, and Fluconazole against three standard test microorganisms, i.e., E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. Agar well diffusion method was used for testing antimicrobial sensitivity, while the drug interaction was estimated using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index) obtained from checkerboard broth dilution method.  All the four non-antibiotics tested for antimicrobial activity showed activity against at least one tested microorganism, whereas fluoxetine showed antimicrobial activity against all tested organisms. Combined effect of fluconazole + fluoxetine and fluconazole + propranolol against C. albicans showed synergistic activity based on the FICindex value obtained i.e., 0.25 and 0.1875, respectively. Based on the results, study suggests that fluoxetine among the other non-antibiotics has a potential for being developed into an effective antimicrobial agent. However, the study needs to be extended in the future to determine the in vivo antimicrobial activity.

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Effect of Extraction Solvents on Bioactive Compounds and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Varieties of Garcinia kola (heckel)OBOWO 02 (soft and less bitter) and OBOWO 03 (Hard and Very Bitter)

 

Okwulehie I. C*., Alozie V. C., Ikechukwu G. C., Nwokeocha O. W. 

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB-7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the extracts obtained using the different solvents - water, acetone, methanol and ethanol on the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of Garcinia kola (Obowo 20 and 03). The following 4 bacterial isolates were used for the investigation of the antimicrobialactivities and and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis of each of the extract indicated the presence of tannin, saponin, flavonoid, Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), alkaloid, carotenoid, anthocyanin and phenol. The extracts exhibited significant inhibitory action against S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosaand E. coli. The result revealed that methanol extract exerted the highest significant activities (P> 0.05) against all the tested organisms at the various treatment regimes with S. aureus having a wider zone of inhibition followed by E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhiwith the lowest inhibitory zones. The MIC of the methanol extract against the organisms was 12.5, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extract showed the least significant activity against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi with MICs of 25, 25, 25 and 50mg/ml respectively.

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Evaluation of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Tridax procumbens Extract

 

Dr Pooja Singh1*, Dr Kirti Jain2, Dr Swati Khare3, Dr Padma Shrivastav1

1Govt. PG College, BHEL, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazir, Bhopal (M.P.)-462001, India

3Maharani Laxmibai, Govt Girls PG Autonomous College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

Abstract

Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The polyphenol and flavonoids are used for the treatment of various diseases triggered by oxidative stress. Tridax procumbens have been used as indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments. In the present study, it was planned to investigate the phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves. The ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves were prepared and performed its phytochemical analysis. The in vitro antioxidant activity namely DPPH, total polyphenol content, total flavonol content and reducing power assay were performed. The qualitative chemical test exhibited the presence of alkaloids, polyphenol, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponin and glycoside in ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Tridax procumbens. The findings of in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated that ethanol extracts expressed higher antioxidant activity compared to methanol and aqueous extract. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of Tridax procumbens

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Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical Standardization of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa Seeds

 

Arif Ahmad Rather*, Kirti Jain

Department of Botany, Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazeer, Bhopal (M.P.)-462001, India

Abstract

Standardization is the code of conduct in order to ensure the proper identification, authentication and also for the standardization of crude herbal drugs. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. Towards authentication and quality assurance of medicinal plants, pharmacognostic, physicochemical studies of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa seeds were performed. The macroscopic and physicochemical parameters like ash value, loss on drying, foaming index, swelling index, extractive values and fluorescence analysis were carried out as per WHO guidelines. The findings of Pharmacognostic and physicochemical studies can be used as markers in the identification and standardization of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa seeds as a herbal remedy and also towards monograph development on the plant. Further it assists in validating this raw material for use in herbal formulations in the upcoming era.

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