Evaluation of Salicin Isolated from Salix subserrata as a Radioprotector against Gamma Irradiation Induced Ultrastructural and Electrophoretic Changes in Spleen Tissue in Rats

 

Monira A. Abd El Kader*, Ibrahim Abulyazid, Mohga Shafik Abdalla, Hayat Mohamed Sharada, Wael Mahmoud Kamel

Biochemistry Department, Division of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth st., Dokki, Giza, Egypt, affiliation ID: 60014618

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of salicin against irradiation effect on spleen tissue in male rats. Lipid peroxidation product (MDA) level was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. Ultrastructural examination was carried out in spleen tissue by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for native protein, lipoprotein and zymogram were carried out in spleen homogenate. As expected, salicin resisted the irradiation effect and declined the MDA level in spleen homogenate of all treated groups. The alterations which were occurred as a result of irradiation in the spleen tissue could not be detected microscopically but they were detected electrophoertically at levels of protein and isozymes. Salicin prevented the qualitative mutagenic effect of irradiation on the electrophoretic protein pattern in the irradiated salicin simultaneous treated group (SI = 0.73). It showed the highest protective effect against qualitative mutagenic irradiation effect in catalase pattern in irradiated salicin pre-treated group (SI = 0.80). It could not prevent the abnormalities occurred qualitatively and quantitatively as a result of irradiation in peroxidase pattern in all irradiated salicin treated groups. While the esterase pattern showed the same electrophoretic pattern in the all irradiated salicin treated groups. The results suggested the radioprotective ability of salicin against gamma irradiation effect on various ultrastructural and electrophoretic patterns in spleen tissue of male rats.

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Comprehensive Report on Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Prominence of Withania somnifera

 

Kalpana Gavande1*, Dr. Kirti Jain2, Dr. Bharti Jain1, Rakesh Mehta3

1Sarojini Naidu Govt Girls PG Autonomous CollegeBhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazir, Bhopal (M.P.)-4620008, India

3Govt. MGM PG college, Itarsi (M.P.)-461111, India

Abstract

Medicinal plants have been one of the prominent sources of remedies since the inception of human civilization. In rural area herbal medicines are considered to be best healthcare products due to its easily availability. A large proportion of the world population, especially in the developing countries relies mainly on the traditional system of medicine. Withania somnifera is known as Ashwagandha belonging to the Solanaceae family. W. somnifera is used as adaptogen, antiarthritic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, nervine tonic, nerve soothing, sedative, hypotensive, antioxidant, immunomodulator, free radical scavenger, anti-stress and anti-cancer agent. From chemistry point of view, the drug contains group of biologically active constituents known as withanolides. The major active constituents of W. somnifera root are steroidal alkaloids and steroidal lactones in a class of constituents called withanolides. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed overview of the published writings on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of W. somnifera; this information will be beneficial in developing new formulations, which are more effective and have more therapeutic values.

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Effect of Endogenous Insulin Levels on Serum Testosterone, Glycemic, and Obesity Parameters in Premenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

 

Ban H. Khalaf1, Manal K. Abdulridha2*, Wafaa E.Tuma3, Hadeel D. Najim2

1College of pharmacy, University of Karbala, Karbala,10001, Iraq

2College of pharmacy, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad,10001,Iraq

3Al-Kindy College of Medicine, University of Baghdad,10001, Iraq

Abstract

In the present study, the relationship between different serum levels of endogenous testosterone, obesity, and metabolic markers in premenopausal type 2 diabetic women was evaluated for their role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. A randomized cross-sectional study of total of 66 premenopausal women with T2DM was allocated into three groups with high level, low level, and near-normal fasting insulin level. The control group includes 30 women with matched age and whom is diabetes. Free fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PPG) , fasting serum insulin (FSI), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), free testosterone (FT), total testosterone (TT), C-peptide protein, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. All premenopausal T2DM women tended to significant high levels of BMI, HOMA-IR, C-peptide, FBG, HbA1c and PPS compared to controls (PË‚0.05) and with significant difference among groups parallel to their endogenous insulin levels. Total testosterone and free testosterone were significantly lower in all premenopausal T2DM women (PË‚0.05), but SHBG showed low but non-significant difference among groups. HOMA-IR showed significant correlation with free testosterone in premenopausal T2DM women with high insulin level (PË‚0.05), but no significant correlation with total testosterone and SHBG was found among all patients groups. In conclusion, premenopausal T2DM women of matched age and duration of the disease have low levels of SHBG and testosterone, which was correlated to insulin resistance in hyperinsulinemic women only.

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Mycoflora Associated with Different Varieties of Cotton (Gssypium arboreum, L.)

 

Anil Kumar Kushwaha

Department of Botany, D.B.S. College, Kanpur - 208001, Uttar Pradesh,  India

Abstract

Different varieties of Gossypium arboreum,L. viz; Lohit, RG-8, LD-327, and Sanjay seeds were evaluated for field and storage fungi from large number of samples from different state of India. Thirty seven fungal species were isolated from cotton seeds by different methods.

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Ameliorative Effect of Salicin Against Gamma Irradiation Induced Electrophoretic Changes in Brain Tissue in Male Rats 

 

Mohga Shafik Abdalla, Hayat Mohamed Sharada, Ibrahim Abulyazid, Monira A. Abd El Kader, Wael Mahmoud Kamel*

Biochemistry Department, Division of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth st., Dokki, Giza, Egypt, affiliation ID: 60014618

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of salicin against irradiation effect on brain tissue of male rats. Lipid peroxidation level was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in brain tissue. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for native protein, lipoprotein and zymogram were carried out in brain homogenate. As expected, salicin resisted the irradiation effect and declined the MDA level in brain homogenate of all treated groups (especially in the irradiated salicin post-treated group). Salicin minimized the qualitative mutagenic effect of irradiation on the electrophoretic protein pattern in all irradiated salicin treated groups and it showed the highest antagonistic effect against irradiation in irradiated salicin post-treated group (SI = 0.57). It could not prevent the abnormalities occurred qualitatively and quantitatively as a result of irradiation in lipoprotein pattern in all irradiated salicin treated groups. In the electrophoretic esterase pattern, salicin prevented the qualitative effect of irradiation in irradiated salicin post-treated group (SI = 1.00). Salicin minimized the qualitative irradiation effect on the catalase pattern in the irradiated salicin pre-treated group (SI = 0.73). While in the peroxidase pattern, salicin adminstration resisted the irradiation effect in the irrradiated post-treated groups (SI = 0.67). The results suggested the radioprotective ability of salicin against gamma irradiation effect on various electrophoretic patterns in brain tissue of male rats.       

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Evaluation of Lipid Profile, Calcium and Alkaline Phosphatase in Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Women

 

Sakina Roohi1,2*, Jiyauddin Khan3, M. Rosaline1, Syyeda Anees1, Hamid Kazi3, M. Kaleemullah3, Shariq Baber4

 1Department of Biochemistry, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India

2International Medical School, Management & Science University, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

3School of Pharmacy, Management & Science University, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

4School of Graduate Studies, Management & Science University, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Abstract

Pregnancy induced hypertension is a main cause of maternal mortality and morbidity . The aim of the present study was destined to evaluate the association of blood Rheology of complicated pre-eclampsia and its comparison with that in normal pregnancy and normal non-pregnant woman. The grouping was done as group I (normal, non-pregnant women) and group II (normal pregnant women) and group III (pregnancy with PIH) Mean age range was 20-35 years. Serum lipid profile, calcium and alkaline phosphatase were monitored in pre-eclampsia, normal pregnant and normal non-pregnant women. The normal pregnancy was associated with significant increase in HDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, Triglyceride, Alkaline phosphatase, with no significant increase in T. cholesterol and significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol and serum calcium when compared to normal non pregnant woman. A significant rise of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, Alkaline phosphatase and fall in HDL-cholesterol and serum calcium was observed with the pre-eclampsia when compared with normal and control groups. Decreased HDL cholesterol and delayed triglyceride clearance and high blood pressure are associated with development of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, this association may be crucial for understanding the pathologic processes of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and may helpful for prevention.

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Evaluation of Anti-Atherosclerotic Activity of Virgin Coconut Oil in Male Wistar Rats Against High Lipid and High Carbohydrate Diet Induced Atherosclerosis

 

Shariq B*, Zulhabri O, Hamid K,  Sundus B, Mehwish H, Sakina R, Jiyauddin K, Kaleemullah M, Samer AD,  Rasha S

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on high lipid diet (HLD) and high carbohydrate diet (HCD) induced atherosclerosis in male Wistar rats. Spectrophotometer was used to determine the lipid parameters by enzymatic endpoint method. The plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were measured using commercial enzymatic kits. The results showed that feeding with normal and VCO diet significantly decrease (p<0.05) body weight when compared to the control group rats. Body weight and lipid profile were estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. VCO showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in TC, TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels and significant (p<0.05) increase in HDL in HCD /HLD group rats. There was significant decrease in atherogenic index (AI) (p<0.05) of all VCO treated groups when compared to the Control group. Hence, there was increase in the percentage of protection in VCO treated animals after 8 weeks.The decrease of lipid profiles in the experimental rats showed that VCO possesses anti-atherosclerotic activity.

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Effects of Atorvastatin and Streptozocin on Immunohistochemical Markers in Hippocampus of Male Adult Rats

 

Mustafa G. Al-Abbassi1, Mustafa Ibraheem2, Alaa Al-hindawi1, Saba I. Salih3

1Department of pharmacology and toxicology, college of pharmacy/ Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq.

2Department of human anatomy, Histology and Embryology, college of Medicine/ Al-  Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq.

3Department of environmental health, college of applied medical sciences/ University of Karbala, Iraq.

Abstract

In addition to the lipid lowering activity, statins act positively as a neuro-protective agent in some clinical cases such as Alzheimer’s disease, brain injury, ischemia and seizures. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder representing the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population. Central STZ administration developed numerous behavioral, neurochemical and structural features that resembled those found in human Alzheimer’s disease. The results of the present study showed a significant increase in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the groups of rats administered intrathecal injection of streptozocin when put side by side with the control one. A reduction in this marker observed in the group administered  20 mg/kg atorvastatin combined with a single intrathecal injection of streptozocin when compared to group taken streptozocin alone. Anti-oxidant state represented by glutathione reductase showed a significant increase in the expression of this marker in the groups that administered 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg atorvastatin after intrathecal injection of streptozocin in compared with the group administered streptozocin alone. However, a significant reduction in this marker observed in the group administered streptozocin alone when compared with control group. A significant increase in the neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme in the hippocampus of rats administered intrathecal injection of streptozocin. Also, a reduction in this marker observed in the groups treated with 10 and 20 mg/kg atorvastatin combined with a single intrathecal injection of streptozocin when put side by side with group taken streptozocin alone. We can conclude from the results that administration of streptozocin intrathecally lead to a model of Alzheimer’s disease indicated by brain damage that may be improved by atorvastatin treatment but in a dose dependent manner.

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