Comprehensive Notes on Anti diabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants and Polyherbal Formulation

 

Udaychand Sahu*, Sandip Prasad Tiwari, Amit Roy

Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur-493111 (CG), India

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a common and serious metabolic disorder throughout the world. It is a dreadful disease found in all parts of the world and is becoming a serious threat to mankind health. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. Traditional plants have been used throughout the world for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Among many medications and polyherbal plants, several herbs have been known to cure and control diabetes; additionally they have no side effects. Although, synthetic oral hypoglycemic agents/insulin is the mainstream treatment of diabetes and effective in controlling hyperglycaemia, they have prominent side effects and fail to significantly alter the course of diabetic complications. This forms the main reason for an increasing number of people finding alternating therapies that may have less severe or no side effects. This article presents a review on some reported antidiabetic medicinal plants and plant based marketed polyherbal herbal formulations.

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Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Fairness Cream Comprising Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Camellia sinensis

 

Nirmala Gupta1*, Aditi Dubey2, Pushpa Prasad2, Amit Roy2

1Department of Biotechnology, Institutefor Excellencein Higher Education, Bhopal-462027 (M.P.), India

2Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur-493111 (C.G.), India

Abstract

The present study was carried out to prepare and evaluate the herbal fairness cream comprising extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Camellia sinensis. The various types of formulations oil in water (O/W) base namely F1 to F6 were formulated by incorporating different concentrations Stearic acid and Cetyl alcohol. The pH, viscosity, spreadibilty, and stability of prepared base were investigated. The base F3 was found appropriate for the preparation of cream. The extracts of varying ratio of Pleurotus ostreatus, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Camellia sinensis were incorporated in base F3 for the preparation of three herbal fairness cream (HF1, HF2 and HF3). All the three herbal cream demonstrated good spreadibilty, good consistency, homogeneity, appearance, pH, ease of removal and no evidence of phase separation. All the prepared herbal cream was found to be safe for skin. 

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A Novel Highly Selective and Sensitive Nano-Molar Cu(I), Cu(II) Modified Carbon Paste Sensors Based on Thiosemicarbazide and Acetaldehydethiosemicarbazone

 

Amal F. Khorshid1*, Ragab R. Amin2 and Yousry M. Issa3

1Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry department, Pharmaceutical College, Nahda University, NUB, New Beni-Sueff, Egypt

2Basic and Applied Science Department, Oral and Dental College, Nahda University, NUB, New Beni-Sueff, Egypt

3Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt 

Abstract

A novel highly selective and sensitive nano Molar Concentration Cu(I) and Cu(II) ion-chemically modified carbon based electrode (CMCPE) based on the metal complexes, [Cu(HTS)(TS)(ac)2].(C2H5OH) or [Cu(ATS)2(ac)(H2O)].(H2O) dissolved in tricresyl phosphate (TCP) as pasting liquid were prepared. The modified electrodes showed Nernstian slopes of 60.5 mV and 29.5±1 mV per decade for Cu(I) or Cu(II) ions over the concentration range 0.012 nM up to 1.0×10−2 M and 0.016 nM up to 7.9×10−3 M and a detection limit of 0.398 and 0.630 nM respectively.  The sensor has a relatively fast response time of < 10 s and it can be used in the pH range of 3.8–8.0. The selectivity coefficients for mono-, di-, and trivalent cations indicate the good selectivity of sensor for Cu (I) and Cu (II) ions over a large number of interfering cations. As a result the proposed electrodes were applied to Cu (I) and Cu (II) ions determination in mixture soutions, waste water samples. The materials [Cu(TS)(HTS)(ac)2].(C2H5OH) and [Cu(ATS)2(ac)(H2O)].(H2O), were isolated by the anodic dissolution of Copper metal in an anhydrous acetone solution of  the ligands where HTS is thiosemicarbazide, HATS is acetaldehydethiosemicarbazone ligand and ac = acetone. Elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, molar conductance, thermal analysis and spectroscopic techniques has been used for characterization and elucidation for the structure the isolated materials. [Cu(TS)(HTS)(ac)2].(C2H5OH) shows diamagnetic moment which may be arising from anodic dissolution of Cu(I) during the electrolysis of Copper metal during electrochemical preparation.

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Novel Coated Wires Sensors with Flow-Injection for Potentiometric Determination of Neostigmine in Bulk, Amostigmine and Human Urine

 

Amal Fouad Khorshid1*, Y M Issa2

 

1Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University, NUB, New Beni-Sueff, Egypt

2Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt 

Abstract

Four types of coated wires sensors (silver, copper, graphite and glassy carbon) are constructed for the determination of neostigmine (Ns) based on the ion-pair associates neostigmine silicotungstate (Ns-ST), neostigmine silicomolybdate (Ns-SM), neostigmine phosphotungstate (Ns-PT), neostigmine phosphomolybdate (Ns-PM), and ion-pairs neostigmine tetraphenylborate (Ns-TPB) in a poly (vinyl chloride) as coated film with a plasticized tricresylphthalate (TCP). The four types sensors are showed a Nernstain slopes ranged from 59-64 mV per decade in batch and 65-70 mV per decade in flow injection conditions (FIA) over a neostigmine concentration ranged from 5.0x10-7-1.0x10-2 M and within the pH range 4.0-11.0. The influences of coated film composition, pH of the Ns and foreign ions on the sensors performance were investigated and were found to be very selective, precise and excellent selectivity. The sensors were successfully applied to the potentiometric determination of neostigmine bromide in pure state, in amostigmine, and human urine. FI analysis and dissolution profile for determination neostigmine were investigated. The data were comparable with official methods for the assay and excellent percentage recovery was obtained.

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Comprehensive Review on Pharmacological Profile of Alangium salvifolium: A Medicinal Plant

 

Meenakshi Ratra*, Rajesh Gupta

Sri Sai College of Pharmacy, Badhani, Pathankot (Punjab)-145001, India

Abstract

Now a day’s world population moves towards herbal remedies for treatment of various ailments. Plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions. In India, medicinal plants are widely used by people as folk remedies and pharmaceutical preparations. Alangium salvifolium is a deciduous shrub belongs to family Alangiaceae with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in India, China and Phillipines. The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for rheumatism, leprosy, hemorrhoid, burning sensation, constipation and antidote for several poisons. A wide range of chemical compounds including alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. In this paper, we give a comprehensive review of its habitat, taxonomy, distribution, identification ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile of this medicinal plant.

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Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Leaves and Barks of Alangium salvifolium in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

 

Meenakshi Ratra*, Rajesh Gupta

Sri Sai College of Pharmacy, Badhani, Pathankot (Punjab)-145001, India

Abstract

Alangium salvifolium is a medicinal plant, used by herbalist for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus in Central India. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically validated so far. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanol extracts of leaves and barks of Alangium salvifolium against strepozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The ethanol extracts of leaves and barks of Alangium salvifolium at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals and found significantly lowered the blood glucose level. Glibenclamide was used as a standard drug at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg. The effect of extracts on induced hyperlipidemia was analyzed where the extracts significantly lowered the elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) level while increased the high density lipoprotein (HDL). Moreover, the decreased in body weight of rats after induction of diabetes, and increased in body weight of rats after treatment with extracts was observed. The experimental data exhibited that extract of leaves and barks of Alangium salvifolium has significant antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced rats compared to standard drug. The ethanol extracts of leaves exhibited maximum antidiabetic activity as compared to barks extract.  

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Comparative Estimation of Plumbagin in Aerial and Root Part of Plumbago zeylanica Using UV-Visible Spectrophotometric 

 

Bharti Dohare1*,Bharti Jain1, Swati Khare2, Kirti Jain3

1Sarojini Naidu Govt Girls PG Autonomous College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2Institute for Excellence in Higher Education, Kolar Road, Bhopal (M.P.)-462007, India

3Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazir, Bhopal (M.P.)-462001, India

Abstract

Plumbago zeylanicais one such important medicinal plant which is being used the world over in the traditional system of medicines. The plant is being used extensively in commercial preparations of medicines. The plumbagin present in different parts of Plumbago zeylanica as active constituent and it imparts wide range of biological activities. In the present study we planned to check the concentration of plumbagin present in aerial and root of Plumbago zeylanica. The petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared from the aerial and root of Plumbago zeylanica by successive extraction method. The phytochemical investigation of Plumbago zeylanica exhibited maximum phytoconstituents along flavonoids and polyphenol present in ethanol and aqueous extracts. While the petroleum ether extract of aerial and root contains steroid. The Plumbagin content in ethanol extract of aerial and root of Plumbago zeylanica was estimated from the calibration graph plotted from pure plumbagin. The findings of study indicate that concentration of plumbagin in aerial part of Plumbago zeylanica is maximum compared to root.

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Patterns of Drug Use and Adherence in the Management of Hypertension in a Health Care Facility in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria

 

Aghoja OC1*, Arute JE1, Ovwioghose OS1, Erah PO2, Eniojukun JF3

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University,PMB 1 Abraka, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, PMB 30001 Benin City, Nigeria

3Department of Clinical pharmacy and pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amasoma, PMB 071 Bayelsa Stata, Nigeria

Abstract

Hypertension is one of the treatable causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management and evaluation of hypertension helps to streamline treatment protocols in hospitals that conform to global practice standards. Critical to hypertension management is adherence and lack of knowledge to adhering to prescribed medications may constitute treatment failure. To determine the patterns and adherence level of antihypertensives and impacting factors to non-adherence.The case files of adult hypertensive patients of the Central hospital Warri that were surveyed for a period of six months was 400 for drug use pattern. Reasons for non-adherence was also gathered. The 8-item Morisky questionnaire was used to gather information on adherence. Females affected was 69.8% with mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 153.3mmHg±16.7 and males 30.2% with mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 155.3mmHg±17.3% and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for females (91.8mmHg±10.7) and males (92.0mmHg±9.8). After the start of therapy, mean SBP and DBP for females (143.8mmHg±22.3; 86.4mmHg±12.5) and males (143.6mmHg±22.1; 87.9mmHg±11.6). The most frequently prescribed antihypertensive was calcium channel blockers (29.7%) and next was angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (24.8%) and these were the commonest multitherapy (50%) encountered. Adherence level was 84%. Reasons for non-adherence were affordability and forgetfulness to take medications. Calcium-channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were mostly prescribed, and as dual therapy while diuretics were rarely used. Adherence to medication was relatively high, but their blood pressure was poorly controlled. Reasons for non-adherence were the inability of respondents to afford medications and forgetfulness.

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