Assessment of Protective Effects of Extracts of Zingiber officinale and Althaea officinalis on Pyloric Ligation-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Experimental Animals

 

Sameh S. Zaghlool1*, Basim A. Shehata2, Ali A. Abo-Seif1and Hekma A. Abd El-Latif3

1Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University, BeniSueif-62111, Egypt

2Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Sueif University, BeniSueif-62111, Egypt

3Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University,Makkah-21955, KSA

Abstract

Gastric ulcer is one of the most gastro-intestinal disorders in world. There are many drugs used for the treatment of gastric ulcer, but most of these associates with several adverse effects. In the present study we investigate the protective effects of extracts of Zingiber officinale and Althaea officinalis on pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Animals were divided into 5 groups; a normal control group, an ulcer control group, a standard treatment group receiving famotidine (20 mg/kg), and two treatment groups receiving Z. officinale extract (100 mg/kg) and A.officinalis extract (100 mg/kg). Treatments were given orally for 14 days. On the 15th day, animals were subjected to pyloric ligation except normal control group. Four hours later, rat stomachs were excised and gastric juice and blood samples were collected. Pyloric ligation significant increases ulcer number, ulcer index, gastric volume, titratble acidity, acid output, mucin content and peptic activity, accompanied by significant decreases in blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) activity and gastric mucosal nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) contents. In addition, elevations in gastric mucosal lipid peroxide and histamine contents were observed. Pretreatment with famotidine, Z. officinale or A.officinalis extracts significantly corrected all blood and tissue parameters by varying degrees.Famotidine, Z. officinale and A.officinalis extractsmay protect against pyloric ligation-induced peptic ulcer in rats, being promising for further clinical trials.

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Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Azadirachta indica Leaves Extracts Against Staphylococcus aureus

 

Bhuwanendra Singh*,  Arshad Ahamad, Vipin Pal 

Department of Pharmacognosy,Rajiv Academy for Pharmacy, NH-2, Delhi-Mathura Highway, Mathura (U.P.), India

Abstract

Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. A. indica leaves extract was used to screen antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The methanol extract of leaves of A. indica was prepared and its phytochemical screening  was performed. The phytochemical analysis exhibited the presence alkaloids, polyphenol, tannins, flavonoids and glycoside in extract. The methanol extract of A. indica leaves tested against S. aureus using disc diffusion method. Gentamicin was used as standard and compared the effect of antibacterial activity of methanol extract. The methanol extract of A. indica leaves demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against tested bacteria.

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Investigation of the Pulmonary Function Tests in Young Adults Smokers

 

Saba Ibrahim Salih1, Alaa Adel Al-hindawi2

 1Department of Environmental Health, College of Applied Medical Sciences/ University of Karbala, Iraq

 2Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq  

Abstract

In Iraq tobacco smoking is a common habit. The World health organization (WHO) reported that smoking of tobacco was killed about 100 million persons in all  the world in the 20th century and it could kill one billion persons over the world in the 21st century. The aim of the present study was to pointed the effect of smoking on respiratory system.

The present study was conducted in the College of Applied Medical Science/University of Karbala from November 2014 to February 2015. 30 healthy male were included in this study and their age were ranged between 19-23 years. Spirometry data of 20 smokers and 10 non-smokers were collected by the computerized spirometer. The results show that pulmonary function tests was significantly reduced in smokers group compare to non-smokers group (p<0.05). The investigation confirming PFT values are less in smokers due to toxic effects of tobacco smoking on respiratory system & is the major cause of obstructive lung disease.

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Secondary metabolites and cytotoxic potential of Lobariella pallida and Stereocaulon strictum var. compressum, two lichens from Colombian páramo region

 

Litta Samari Perico-Franco1,Manuel Soriano-García2, Marco A. Cerbón3, Ignacio González-Sánchez4,5, Norma A. Valencia-Islas6

1Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 No. 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia

2Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México 04510, D. F. México

3Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F., 04510, México

4Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F., 04510, México

5Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México 04510, D. F. México

6Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 No. 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia

Abstract

In order to contribute to the knowledge of the chemical constituents and bioactivity of lichens from Colombian páramo region, methanolic extracts of Lobariella pallida and Stereocaulon strictum var. compressum were submitted to phytochemical and cytotoxic studies. Lobariellin (methyl 3-formyl-2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate) (1), along with methyl orsellinate (2) were isolated from the Lobariella pallida. The active constituents namely porphyrilic acid (3), methyl haematommate (4), methyl β-orcinolcaboxylate (5) and atranorin (6) were isolated from the Stereocaulon strictum. The structures of 1-6 were determined by analysis of their spectroscopic (NMR, IR, UV) and spectrometric data. In addition, the structures of 1, 2 and 3 were unequivocally corroborated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Neither methanol extracts nor compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6 were cytotoxic to the normal (HaCaT) and transformed (MCF-7, HeLa, K562, PC3) mammalian cell tested, which could be indicative of a possible innocuousness and be helpful in other biomedical usefulness.  

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Development of Consensus Algorithms for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Recommended by the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes

 

Nikola Kolev1, Valentina Petkova1*, Kalina Andreevska2, Guenka Petrova1, Milen Dimitrov1

1Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University – Sofia-1000, Bulgaria

2Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University – Plovdiv-4002, Bulgaria

Abstract

Diabetes as a health problem needs a complex management in order a better quality of life for the patients to be achieved. There are various organizations, and clinicians who have created guidelines for proper treatment of the disease. In some extent, there are controversial and this fact leads to confusion. Considering these different approaches  for treatment of diabetes and the various point of views for management of the disease, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) developed recommendations for antihyperglycemic therapy in nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to compare the two consensuses of ADA’s and EASD’s in order to be emphasized the main approaches.

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Metabolites with antioxidant and photo-protective properties from Usnea roccellina Motyka, a lichen from Colombian Andes

 

José L. Rojas1*, Mauricio Díaz-Santos2, Norma A. Valencia-Islas2

 1Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 No. 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia

 2Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 No. 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia

Abstract

The antioxidant and photo-protective efficacy of the extract and isolated compounds from the lichen Usnea rocellina Motyka were evaluated. The antioxidant activity was determined by scavenging the DPPH radicals and ferric reducing power. The photo-protective property of extracts and isolated compound against ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) radiations was measured in vitro by calculation of their sun protection factor (SPF), critical wavelength and UVA ratio comparing to commercialised sunscreens (avobenzone and benzophenone-3). 3-methoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (1), reported here for the first time, along with (+)-(9b-R)-usnic acid (2) and decarboxythamnolic acid (3) were isolated. The structure of the isolated compounds was characterized by interpreting their spectroscopic (NMR, IR, UV), and spectrometric data. The findings of this study demonstrated that the compound 3 is a better antioxidant compared to other isolated compound and extract, and was similar to standard (BHT and ascorbic acid) ascorbic acid. On the other hand, 1 showed to be an UVB absorbing with a moderate in vitro SPF whereas 2 and 3 showed broad UVB and UVA absorbing properties. The possible skin penetration, determined by calculating octanol/water partition coefficients allowed to confirm this property in 2 and 3. These results suggest 3 as a dual agent with antioxidant and broad spectrum absorbing properties therefore it is able to prevent oxidative skin damage caused by solar radiation. 

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Patient Medical Records: Evaluation of Knowledge, Perception and Utilization among Hospital Pharmacists in Secondary and Tertiary Hospitals in Lagos State

 

Eniojukan JF1*, Onedo OT2

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Niger Delta University, PMB 071, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

2Pharmacy Department, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Yaba, P.M.B. 2009, Lagos, Nigeria 

Abstract

Good communication among health care practitioners is sine qua non to the provision of optimal pharmaceutical care. One of such ways of communication is access and documentation into the Patient Medical Records (PMR) by pharmacists. The general objective of this study was to determine hospital pharmacists’ opinion on impact of access to PMR on the provision of pharmaceutical care. A self completed questionnaire was administered on all the pharmacists in four and fourteen tertiary and secondary hospitals respectively in Lagos State, Nigeria. Data analysis was done using SPSS 20.0. Over 70% of the respondents were aged 20-39 years; 90.9% had a good knowledge of the components of PMR; 92.9% agreed that the pharmacists should have unrestricted access to PMR; only 51.6% had access to all the information in the PMR; 89.4% perceived that access to PMR will lead to positive outcomes for patients, and 90.5% opined that pharmacists would have more satisfying practice if theyhad access to PMR. Respondents’ categories were correlated with their knowledge and perceptions of PMR and the latter’s utilities. Management should remove all obstacles to pharmacists’ access to all data in the PMR.

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Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effect on Cell and DNA Oxidative Damage of Substances isolated from Lichens of Colombian páramo

 

Litta Samari Perico-Franco1,José L. Rojas2, Marco A. Cerbón3,Ignacio González-Sánchez4,5, Norma Angélica Valencia-Islas6* 

1Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 No. 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia

2Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 No. 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia

3Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F., 04510, México

4Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F., 04510, México

5Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México 04510, D. F. México

6Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 No. 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia 

Abstract

The páramo ecosystem is situated in northwest of South America, and it is well known for distribution of lichens. It is documented that lichens produce antioxidant activity, and protect cells from oxidative stress by scavenging free radical. Hence we checked the antioxidant and protective abilities to prevent cell and DNA damage by oxidative stress of Lobariella pallida and Stereocaulon strictum var.compressum extracts. Additionally, the active constituents namely lobariellin (1), methyl orsellinate (2), stereocaullin (3), methyl haematommate (4), methyl β-orcinol carboxylate (5), porphyrilic acid (6) and atranorin (7), were isolated from both extracts and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The DPPH·, ferric reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation model were used to determined the antioxidant activity of extracts and isolated compounds. The cell and DNA protective effects of extracts and isolated compounds were investigated by exposing keratinocytes, neurons and pUC18 plasmid to hydroxyl radicals, and examined cell viability or DNA cleavage of sample. The findings exhibits that the compounds 1, 4 and 6 scavenged free radicals, inhibited lipid peroxidation and reduced ferric ions at maximum level compared to other isolated compound and extracts. Additionally, 1 and 4 protected cells from oxidative damage and 1 also preserved DNA. These results suggest that 1 and 4 imparts antioxidant activity to prevent oxidative skin and neurodegenerative damage. 

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