Phytochemicals—Biosynthesis, Function and Application 

 

Kerry Hughes, M.Sc., Director, EthnoPharm, Greater Boston Area, USA

Abstract

Phytochemicals—Biosynthesis, Function and Application: Volume 44 (Recent Advances in Phytochemistry), Editor: Reinhard Jetter, 2015, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, ISBN: 978-3-319-04044-8, ISBN: 978-3-319-04045-5 (eBook)

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF 

QCM-D for Haemostasis Assays: Current Status and Future: A Review

 

Munawar Hussain*

Biosensor Research Group, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Transfusion Medicine and Centre of Clinical Transfusion Medicine (ZKT), Tuebingen University and German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service BW/H, 72072, Tuebingen, Germany

Abstract

In recent years, modern technologies and devices for coagulation monitoring have demonstrated a multidisciplinary interest in assays and methods. Devices and equipment for point-of-care (POC) coagulation monitoring of whole blood or plasma could eliminate fundamental deficiencies of routine coagulation assays and tests. Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) is an emerging powerful biomedical device, and it has an outstanding potential in this perspective. This is `first critical review` article` that focuses the applications of coagulation assays on QCM-D technique, and it covers the substantial scientific efforts from 2011 to January 2016. This article could provide baselines for coagulation assays on QCM-D technology for the future perspectives, ultra-refining the POC settings for laboratory and clinical methods levels in worldwide and far beyond.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Approach to Phytochemistry and Mechaniasm of Action of Plants having Antidiabetic Activity

 

Preeti Sen, Kamlesh Sahu, Pushpa Prasad*, Shashikant Chandrakar, Ram Kumar Sahu, Amit Roy

Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Raipur- 493111 Chhatisgarh, India

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a global metabolic epidemic affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every age group. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood glucose level. When the body failed to produce sufficient insulin or is not able to insulin effectively or both leading to diabetes. Presently herbal drugs are widely used for the treatment of diabetes in worldwide. India has a long list of native medicinal plants with confirmed blood sugar lowering property. Some of these have proved remarkable for cure of diabetes and its complications. In this paper an attempt has been made to give an overview of certain Indian plants with their phytoconstituents and mechanism of action which have been studied for their antidiabetic activity.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Contraception among Staff and Students in a University Community in Delta State, Nigeria

 

Eniojukan Joshua F1*, Ofulue Ijeoma2, Okinedo Prince O2

1Public Health Pharmacy Unit, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, PMB 071, Bayelsa, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, PMB 01, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Abstract

There is evidence to show that unplanned pregnancies are on the increase among women in Nigeria. It is true that one of the ways to improve reproductive health is by enhancing access to contraception. This study was to evaluate knowledge, perceptions and practices of contraception among 500 staff and students of a university in south-south Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Abraka and Oleh Campuses of Delta State University using appropriately designed, validated and pre-tested questionnaire. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 20. Respondents were students (70%), males (47.8%), aged 21-30 (48.9%) and Christians (90.9%). 84% of the respondents had good-to-excellent knowledge of contraceptives; 75.1% were sexually-active; contraceptive use prevalence was 58.2%; main reasons for non-use of contraceptive were hatred for it an intolerable side-effects. Condoms and oral pills were the preferred methods and safety, reliability and accessibility were proffered as reasons for choice; 17.3% had experienced contraceptive failure which resulted in abortion (47.4%). Pharmacy shops, health centers and Chemist shops were the sources for procuring contraceptive products; Family/friends, television and health professionals were sources of information about contraception; 46.7% did not experience side-effects; marital status was correlated with contraceptive knowledge and use. This study recommends that family planning should be vigorously promoted in a country like Nigeria with a high fertility, maternal and child mortality rates.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Ezetimibe Repurposing: An In-Silico Testing of its Potential Anti-giardia Activity

 

Rehab Ahmed1, 2, Faisal M. Fadlelmola1* 

1Centre for Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum-321, Sudan

2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum-11111, Sudan

Abstract

Giardia leads to human parasitic disease, and it is highly prevalent in the developing countries. The current medication used to treat giardia is associated with numerous side effects. Moreover, the problem of the emerging giardia resistance given the limited number of anti-giardia agents. Ezetimibe is a cholesterol lowering agent, and it acts to inhibit cholesterol absorption. Giardia needs cholesterol for its survival. It is also known that Giardia depends on external sources of cholesterol. Interfering with the cholesterol uptake pathway might be a promising approach in Giardia therapeutics. Searching for new potential therapeutic targets and agents was the main objective of this research. The hypothesis we proposed is that Ezetimibe might have an inhibitory and/or killing effect on Giardia. Our aim was to test in-silico the potential anti-giardia activity of this drug and the possible targets. Literature as well as public databases search was done to find possible targets for Ezetimibe in Giardia. 3D Models for the found potential targets were generated using comparative modeling software. Models refinement and assessment were also done. Using Surflex-dock the possible binding of Ezetimibe to the giardia targets was tested. We found that a putative Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and a putative Giardia lamblia low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein could be  possible targets for this drug. The docking score on LCAT was fair. By binding to one or both of these proteins, Ezetimibe might be able to affect Giardia viability. In vitro validation of these findings is yet to be done.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Prevalence and Contexts of Smoking among the People of Kaiama Community in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 

Eniojukan Joshua F*, Owonaro Peter A

Public Health Pharmacy Unit, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, PMB 071, Bayelsa, Nigeria

Abstract

Cigarette smoking continues to destroy many lives across the globe. This study was conducted to evaluate the various contexts of cigarette smoking in a community in Bayelsa state of Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out utilizing questionnaires administered randomly to 434 consenting respondents. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 20. There were more males (61.8%), singles (48.8%); Christians (88.5%), Ijaws (56.2%); 42.2% were aged 31-60 years; 30.2% and 28.8% were respectively students and civil servants. Smoking prevalence was 45.9%; 47.2% started smoking at age 16-25; 30% always smoked to relieve stress; 59.3% of smokers smoked 1-5 sticks a day; 66% also smoked Indian hemp; 93.3% were aware that smokers were liable to die young; 60% still smoked because they were addicted to it; 82.7% attempted   to stop smoking; respondents complained of cough (62.7%), chest pain (20.7%); friends (56.0%) and relatives (20%) were the major influencers; 26.3% had fathers that smoked; friends and relatives had high influence; 55.5% were not in favour of non-smoking policy in public places. Gender and marital status were correlated with smoking prevalence. Public enlightenment and smoking-cessation programmes are urgently needed in this community.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Shewhart Control Chart in Microbiological Quality Control of Purified Water and its Use in Quantitative Risk Evaluation  

 

Mostafa E. Eissa

Microbiology Quality Control Department, Head in HIKMA Pharma Pharmaceutical Company, Cairo 11511, Egypt

Abstract

Water in pharmaceutical industry is a key ingredient in many industrial processes, including machine washing and preparation of most medicinal products. The process of regular monitoring for the microbiological quality of water at the points of use is a critical aspect in ensuring the compliance to the limit. However, the full value of the microbiological control could be accomplished by the use of control charts and statistical quality control to show the trend and behavior of bioburden. In addition, Shewhart charts provide insight for prediction of the future of the water quality. In the current study, purified water samples were analyzed microbiologically during a two-year period. The generated data were continuously interpreted using statistical software packages. The trend indicated that two regions in Shewhart chart were in the out-of-control  state at these periods generating either out-of-trend (OOT) and/or out-of-specification (OOS). Investigations showed that these deteriorations in the performance were chronologically coincided with unusual rise in the microbial count of city water, although there was no direct correlation between the input and output water microbiologically. The rate of failure of product purified water was determined to be 7.69x10-4 and Ppk was 1.06 which were unsatisfactory performance. However, by removing the excursion periods due to the expected extraneous causes from the I-MR chart, a 337 times increase in the process performance was estimated with Ppk index of 1.53 and quantitative performance failure risk (QPR) equals 2.28x10-6. This finding highlighted the criticality of the quality of the feed city water and its impact on the final purified water. Thus, the processing stages in the water purification plant are not absolute barriers against microbial creeping into the distribution system, and the purification system of water has a certain tolerance limit after which an outbreak of microbial population occurs and hence compromising the system efficacy and performance. From the present study, it is recommended to design protective pretreatment system that buffers severe fluctuations in raw water quality so that water station possesses the ability to work optimally in an attempt of delivering safe water for medicinal and pharmaceutical manufacturing purposes.

 

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

A Simultaneous Monitoring of Coagulation Time and Fibrinogen via PiCT on QCM-D

 

Munawar Hussain*

Biosensor Research Group, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Transfusion Medicine and Centre of Clinical Transfusion Medicine (ZKT), Tuebingen University and German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service BW/H, 72072, Germany

Abstract

‘Prothrombinase induced Clotting Time’ (PiCT) has potential to detect all anticoagulants in clinics. In the present study, PiCT has been used as a tool for anticoagulant detection in human plasma on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique. QCM-D technique enables monitoring of PiCT point, total coagulation and fibrinogen concentration from frequency and dissipation curves in single set of measurements. This is impossible on mechanical coagulometer (which is considered as `gold standard`) technique, and it cannot yield coagulation and fibrinogen concentration from a single set of measurements. It requires additional Clauss method or modified Clauss method to calculate fibrinogen by employing different reagents and experimental setups. Additionally, the present report utilizes the lowest sample volume (and each reagent volume) consumptions of 1.66 µL. The sample/reagent volume consumption of 1.66 µL on QCM-D is 30 times lower in comparison with mechanical coagulometer’s that uses 50 µL for laboratory experiments for PiCT. This element is crucial for application of spot test via QCM-D in laboratory and clinics for Point of Care (POC) settings. Different doses of anticoagulant in 20 human plasma samples on QCM-D technique have been studied and compared in parallel to ‘gold standard’. PiCT on QCM-D technique yielded precise and accurate data. Additionally, both techniques produced % RSD values between 3 and 8.5 with slight fluctuations on both sides for PiCT points. The %RSD data for both techniques has lower variability for danaparoid. Furthermore, QCM-D technique enables monitoring of substantial fibrinogen concentrations (i.e. 1 - 6 g/L) with outstanding R2 value of 0.99 on the calibration curve. PiCT-QCM-D technique proved superior at all concentrations of fibrinogen in standard reference plasma for PiCT range (precision) on comparing to that of `gold standard`. 

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Shortened `Thrombin Time` Monitoring on QCM-D: A Better Substitute of `Gold Standard`

 

Munawar Hussain*

Biosensor Research Group, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Transfusion Medicine and Centre of Clinical Transfusion Medicine (ZKT), Tuebingen University and German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service BW/H, 72072, Germany

Abstract

Thrombin is the central enzyme in the coagulation cascade. Recently, modern technologies for thrombin generation measurement have shown a multidisciplinary interest in methods and assays. This is first report to recognize and optimize for human plasma application of `thrombin time` (TT) assay for quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique. QCM-D technique has been studied comparatively with mechanical coagulometer (which is regarded as `gold standard` for coagulation assays). The optimized protocol for TT has been applied for plasma samples (n=54) on both platforms. Thrombin times (TTs) on QCM-D platform versus those of `gold standard` yielded a promising correlation line with R2 value of 0.86. For TT assay, QCM-D platform proved superior as compared to `gold standard` platform due to following four edges. Firstly, QCM-D platform provides whole kinetic information, including monitoring of total coagulation on its measurement curve. `Gold standard` cannot yield this information because it picks one point during coagulation. Secondly, TTs on QCM-D platform are 30% shorter as compared to those of `gold standard`. Thirdly, TTs on QCM-D technique produced 16% lower %RSD demonstrating lower variability. Lastly, a historical lowest sample volume consumption of 2.50 µl has been applied on QCM-D platform. ‘Gold standard’ employs 40 times greater sample volume consumption for laboratory experiments of TT. Additionally, 40 times lower reagent volume consumption has been employed on QCM-D platform in comparison to its counterpart’s. These advantageous features are substantial support for point of care (POC) settings for TT assay via QCM-D technique

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Evaluation of In-Vivo Anti-inflammatory activity of leaves extract of Carissa spinarum on Formalin Induced Paw Edema in Albino Rats

 

Neeli Rose Beck*, Kamta Prasad Namdeo

SLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur-495001, Chhatisgarh, India

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the leave extracts of Carissa spinarum. In ancient literature the medicinal values of Carrissa spinarum and it is useful in treatment of rheumatism, purgative and snake repellent. Dried pulverized leaves of C.spinarum were extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and distilled water by using soxhlet apparatus separately. Formalin induced rat hind paw edema method was used for determination of anti-inflammatory activity. Group I was taken as normal control and the group II as formalin control.  Group III was treated with the standard drug analgin. The petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract, alcoholic extract and aqueous extract of C. spinarum leaves 200 mg/kg were feed to group IV, V, VI and VII respectively. All extracts exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity, but aqueous extract produces maximum activity compared to other extracts of C. spinarum. It has been concluded that aqueous extract of C. spinarum leaves having good anti-inflammatory activity against formalin induced rat paw edema.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

A Review of Ionic Liquids for Advance in Drug Delivery: Theory and Pharmaceutical Implementation

 

Mahmoud Omar*

University Laval Faculty of Medicine, Quebec (Quebec), G1V 4G2 Canada 

Abstract

Over the years chemical salts with the name of ionic liquids have been developed although there use in the pharmaceutical field is still under intense investigation. Due to their unique properties of forming neutral ion pairs and combining two drugs to one salt they have been investigated for the use in drug delivery. Where a solid drug salt could be transformed into a neutral liquid, with the expectation of increased core permeation without the need of complex permeation mechanism, especially through the skin. The review aims to discuss the theory of these liquids and give pharmaceutical implementation.Additionally, it outlines the possible drug permeation enhancement through skin.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Anti-Dyslipidemia Effect of Ethanol Extract of Passiflora foetida on Dextrose Induced Diabetic Rats

 

Ravi Babu Birudu1, M. Jagadish Naik2*, Janardhan M3

1Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur- 522510, A.P, India

2Department of Zoology & Aquaculture, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur- 522510, A.P, India

3,Department of Pharmacology, Nimra College of Pharmacy, Jupudi, Vijayawada- 521456, A.P, India

Abstract

Dyslipidemia leads to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and it is determined by elevation of plasma concentration of lipoproteins. Diabetes is a chronic disorder and it is controlled by different allopathic and Ayurvedic formulation. The synthetic drugs include sulfonyl ureas, biguanides, metformin HCl, DPP-4 inhibitors etc. The folk medicine is practiced by local people. The people use herbal medicine to control and treat the various types of diseases. In India, tribal people used different types of medicinal plants to control the diabetes. In present study ethanol extracts of Passiflora foetida leaves were evaluated for anti-dyslipidemia activity in dextrose induced diabetic rats. The ethanol extracts of P. foetida were administered at the doses of 100 mg/kg body weight, 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight to the dextrose induced diabetic rats. The silver nanoparticles were prepared by the reaction of 1 mM silver nitrate and 5% leaf extract of P. foetida. The antidyslipidemia activity of ethanol extracts was compared with standard drugs Glipizide, Sitagliptin and Vildagliptin. The standard drugs normally decreased the lipid parameters in diabetic rats. The ethanol extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight showed significant lowering effect on dextrose induced diabetic rats. The total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were decreased by ethanol extract and standard drugs. Additionally the ethanol extract reduced the HDL level in treated animals. The silver nanoparticles produce lower effect on lipid profile. 

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Survey of Contextual Correlates of Pharmacovigilance Practices in Delta State, Nigeria

 

1*Eniojukan Joshua F, 2Okonkwo Chibueze, 2Arute John E

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, PMB 071, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, PMB 1, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Abstract

Pharmacovigilance (PV) became prominent with increasing number of drugs in clinical practice and associated adverse drug events. PV practice in Nigeria is not significantly prevalent. This study aimed at evaluating the knowledge, attitude, practice and contextual correlates of PV among practicing hospital pharmacists in Delta state, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving self-designed questionnaires administered to 100 hospital pharmacists. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. There were more males; 69% were aged between the ages of 22-30 years; 47% worked   for between 5-10 years in their present place of work; 81% of the respondents had one or more post graduate certificates. All respondents were familiar with the term PV while only 3% could not give its correct definition. The overall mean positive attitude was 87%. Over 90% of respondents believed pharmacists should be involved in Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting; that  pharmacists should attend training programmes, and that ADR reporting is a professional role of the pharmacist; 94% of the hospitals established   PV centre mostly (87.2%) headed by pharmacists; a PV committee existed in most hospitals (85.9%). All respondents were aware of the National PV centre but only 80.9% identified Abuja as its location. 75% of respondents ever identified  ADRs; only 2.8% reported to the National PV centre; 68.7% had reported a new ADR; gender and postgraduate qualifications were correlated with respondents’ knowledge of PV; gender and years of practice were correlated with respondents’ attitude toward PV. Lack of finance, inadequate infrastructure and manpower were the identified barriers to PV practice. There is needed for practicing health professionals to be exposed to adequate training.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML