Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Slime Coat Possesses Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Activities

 

Theophine Chinwuba Akunne (formerly Okoye)1, Sunday Nwankwo Okafor2*, David C. Okechukwu3, Simeon Sunday Nwankwor1, Juliet Onyinyechi Emene1, Blessing Ngozika Okoro1

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Enugu Road, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Enugu Road, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

3Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Enugu Road, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Abstract

The mucoprotein slime coat often found on fish bodies act as defense against invasion by microbes and other environmental dangers. There is an increase in the incidence and emergence of multidrug resistant microbial strains, which has necessitated the need for newer antimicrobial agents. With this background, the aim of this study is therefore, to assess the antimicrobial effects as well as wound healing properties of mucin isolated from a catfish slime coat.   Collection, precipitation with 96% absolute acetone, isolation and preparation of the mucilage from the slime coat of a live catfish was performed to obtain the powdered mucilage or catfish mucin (CM). The antimicrobial effect of the CM was evaluated using the agar dilution technique, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The wound healing effect of CM was also studied using wound healing excision model in rats. In addition quantitative biochemical analysis of the constituents of the catfish mucin was also performed using standard procedures.  The CM exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with an MIC value of 3.0, 3.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 6.0 (all in mg/ml) respectively, with no appreciable activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Biochemical analysis of CM showed the presence of carbohydrates (76.31%), moisture content (10.86%), proteins (7.38%), ash (2.34%), fibre (2.06%) and fats (1.06%) per 100 mg of the mucin. While wound healing study showed that CM reduced wound diameter and increased the rate of epithelialization in the increasing order of 40%, 10% and 20% preparations compared to penicillin G, a standard agent. In conclusion, thecatfish mucin, a glycoprotein from the slime coat, exhibited antibacterial activity with bactericidal potentials and possesses wound healing properties.

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Evaluation of Antiulcer Activity of Different Extracts of Clitoria ternatea Leaves on Experimental Animals

 

Abhishek Saxena*, Anil Middha, Vikas Saxena, Pankaj Mishra

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, OPJS University, Churu-331303, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

We planned to evaluate the antiulcer effects of four different extract of Clitoria ternatea leaves.  Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of Indomethacin (10 ml/kg). The antiulcer activity of Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol and aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea leaves (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body wt) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume and pH of gastric juice. Clitoria ternatea leaves showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. Pretreatment with extract displayed significant antiulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug. The volume of acid secretion, and ulcer index were decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. The petroleum extract showed maximum antiulcer activity compared to other extract.

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Synthesis and Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some Cinnoline Derivatives-4(-2-amino-thiophene) Cinnoline-3-Carboxamide

 

Pankaj Mishra*, Anil Middha, Vikas Saxena, Abhishek Saxena

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, OPJS University, Churu-331303, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

A prolonged increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 occurs in inflammatory diseases. Although cinnoline belongs to a family of fairly well known heterocycles, the interest in the study of its derivatives continues. Cinnoline compounds demonstrate interesting bioactivity and many research papers have discussed the biological property, structure-activity relationship, and applications in medicinal science.A new series of substituted Cinnoline derivatives condensed with Thiophene moieties (12a-j) were synthesized and their anti-inflammatory was evaluated. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by rat paw edema method. The pharmacological screening showed that many of these obtained compounds have significant anti-inflammatory activity, comparable to the standard drug (phenylbutazone). The compound 12DSDi produces maximum anti-inflammatory activity compared to other tested compound.

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Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Different Extracts of Clitoria ternatea Leaves in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

 

Abhishek Saxena*, Anil Middha, Vikas Saxena, Pankaj Mishra

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, OPJS University, Churu-331303, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

We planned to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of four different extract of Clitoria ternatea leaves. The different doses of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea leaves (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body wt) were administered orally in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After the administration of extracts, blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals and it was found that they were significant lowered. Glibenclamide was used as a standard drug at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg body weight. The experimental data revealed that extract has significant antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced rats compared to standard drug. The methanol extract showed maximum antidiabetic activity compared to other extract.

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Synthesis, Biological evaluation and Comparative Study of Some Cinnoline Derivatives

 

Pankaj Mishra*, Anil Middha, Vikas Saxena, Abhishek Saxena

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, OPJS University, Churu-331303, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

In medicinal chemistry nitrogen containing heterocycles are the most important compounds which show various biological activities. The cinnoline are nitrogenous derivatives and found to elicit many pharmacological actions like anti-hypertensive, antithrombotic, antihistamine, antileukemic, CNS activity, anti tumor, antibacterial and antisecretory activity. We planned to synthesis new series of substituted Cinnoline derivatives, and evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity. The Cinnoline moiety substituted with different substituents condensed with Pyrazole, Piperazine, Imidazole, Furan and Thiophene moieties separately. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthesized compounds were determined by disc diffusion method. The anti-inflammatory activity of synthesized compounds was assessed by rat paw edema method. The synthesized compound exhibited moderate to good antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity. The substituted Cinnoline Piperazine series and Cinnoline thiophene series compound exhibited maximum antibacterial activity and antifungal activity, respectively. The substituted Cinnoline Imidazole series revealed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Further investigations are required to find out possible mechanism of action.    

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Pharmacological Assessment of Anti-anaemic Activity of Aqueous Leaves Extracts of Telfairia occidentalis and Spondias mombin in Rats

 

Sylvester Chika Ohadoma

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Imo State University, PMB 2000, Owerri, Nigeria

Abstract

To investigate the anti-anaemic activity of aqueous leaves extracts of Telfairia occidentalis and Spondias mombin on experimental rats.The aqueous leaves extracts of T. occidentalis and S. mombin were obtained by cold maceration and processed for 48 h. The chloramphenicol model for experimental induction of anaemia in rats was employed. Anti-anaemic activity was determined by measuring haematological parameters of packed cell volume (PCV), haemeglobin count (Hb) and white blood cell count (WBC). The PCV and Hb levels of extracts treated rats were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to control group. The aqueous extract of T. occidentalis produces higher anti-anaemic activity compared to S. mombin. The decrease in WBC level was recorded with both extracts. The leaves extracts of T. occidentalis and S. mombin possess anti-anaemic activity, and validated their uses as haematinics by traditional healers.

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Pharmacological Assessment of the Leaves Extract and Fractions of Cassia fistula Linnfor Antityphoid Activity

 

Sylvester Chika Ohadoma

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Imo State University, PMB 2000, Owerri, Nigeria

Abstract

To evaluate the antityphoid effect of leaves extract and fractions of Cassia fistula. The crude methanol extracts (CME) of the dried leaves obtained by 48 h cold maceration and further it was fractionated into n-hexane soluble (HF1) and n-hexane insoluble (HF2) fractions. Phytochemical analysis was carried out on its methanol leaf extract. Antityphoid activity of CME, HF1 and HF2 were evaluated in accordance with National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. The phytochemical study indicates the presence of terpenoids, saponins, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, and tannins in extracts. The n-hexane insoluble fraction exerted antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi while n-hexane soluble fraction showed no activity. C. fistula leaves possess antityphoid activity.

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In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Alchornea cordifolia and Costus afer Against Some Bacterial Isolates

 

Owhe-Ureghe UB1, Akpo CO2*   

1Dept. of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Delta State University, P.M.B. 1. Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

2Dept. of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Abstract

The antibacterial activity of the fresh and concentrated extracts of Alchornea cordifolia and Costus afer against five bacterial species was demonstrated in vitro. The diameter of the zones of inhibition ranged from 6.7±1.5mm to 39.±2.5mm for the fresh juices. The concentrated leaf and stem pith extracts had an inhibition range of 6.3±0.7mm to 22.0±2.5mm. The fresh stem pith juice of Alchornea cordifolia was the most potent plant part and K. varians (39.3±2.5mm) was the most susceptible isolate with a zone of inhibition, which compared well with the gentamycin control (39.3±0.6mm). Extracts from the concentrated leaves were more potent than the juice from the fresh leaves. A combination of the fresh juices did not result in higher zones of inhibition. The extracts obtained from the concentrated leaves and stem of C. afer did not inhibit any of the bacteria tested. The pattern of response exhibited by the bacteria to the extracts was shown by ANOVA to be significantly different. However, ANOVA showed no significant difference in the activity of the concentrated extracts from the leaves of Alchornea cordifolia on K. varians (P>0.05). The stem pith and leaves of A. cordifolia can be exploited for use as antibacterial drugs against the bacteria tested since susceptibility to some of them compared well as to gentamycin. The traditional use of these plants for the treatment of diseases caused by the tested isolates was scientifically verified.

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Green Synthesis of Zinc Nanowires using Spilanthes acmella Leaf Extract

 

Nilesh Paul1,2*, Eesha Khole1, Swapnil Jagtap1, Harshada Tribhuvan1, Gajanan Kakde1, Pratiksha Kuwar1

1Department of Biotechnology,MGM’s Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Aurangabad-431003, Maharashtra, India

2Department of Biotechnology, MGM’s Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College, Aurangabad-431003, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

Biogenic synthesis of metal nanomaterials has garnered attention in current nanobiotechnology. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc nanoparticles have gained importance due to their applications in diverse fields. In this paper, we report on the biological synthesis of zinc nanowires using Spilanthes acmella leaves extractas a reducing agent. Synthesized nanoparticles have been confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).The characterization revealed the wire shape of zinc nanoparticles.

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Comparative Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Properties of Raw And Boiled Allium cepa in Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Mellitus Rats

 

Ojieh, AE1*,Ugorji AE1, Ovuakporaye IS1, Ewhre OL2; Ossai NR2

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, PMB1, Abraka Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacology and Biotechnology, Emma-maria Scientific Research Laboratories & Consultancy, P. O. BOX 85, Abraka, Nigeria

Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism whose prevalence is rising globally. The hypoglycemic property of raw Allium cepa has been established by several authors, and this study, was carried out to investigate the effect of heat on the hypoglycemic property of Alliumcepa. This is against the backdrop that Alliumcepais mostly consumed boiled in Africa and several parts of the World. 40 Wistar rats were used for the study and diabetes was induced in 35 of them using single intraperitoneal dose of 40mgkg-1 of alloxan monohydrate. There were eight groups (n= 5). Group one and two served as the control groups, group three is insulin and group four is metformin.  Group five to eight were treatment groups. Result showed the following reduction at 400 mgkg-1 (raw- 57.2%; boiled-41.3%). At 600 mgkg-1, (raw-30.9%; boiled-20.9%). It is therefore concluded based on these findings that boiling Alliumcepareducedits hypoglycemic potential and hence its effectiveness in ameliorating hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus. In the same experiment, insulin at (40 µgkg-1) and metformin at (50 mgkg-1) show plasma glucose reduction of (52.7%) and (12.3%) respectively when compared with the control. Result shows that heat reduces hypoglycemic property of onions.

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Review on Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer

 

T. Mangilal1*, K. S. K Rao Patnaik1, Kishan Bookya2

*1Department of Pharmacy, UCT, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500007, Telangana, India

2Department of Pathology, ACSR Govt medical College, Nellore-524002, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract

Breast cancer is the second leading disease in women worldwide. Unfortunately, no adequate treatment available for progressing disease condition. In addition, severe pain experienced by the patients leads to negative psychosocial and physical impact on their lives. Patient-centered pain management therapies effectively working for controlling the pain caused by cancer. Early prognosis of breast cancer is more advisable. The risk of breast cancer depends mainly on menarche at an early age and menopause and first birth at late age. Ultrasonography and mammography are the most effective technique for the detection of cancer in pre and post menopausal women. Recent advancements in the treatment of breast cancer that include sentinel lymph node biopsy, partial breast irradiation, MRI, breast-conserving surgery, adjuvant systemic therapy and neoadjuvant systemic therapy. In addition; recently, minimal invasive techniques have been introduced, which include radiofrequency ablation, focused ultrasound ablation and cryotherapy. The present review article mainly discussing the diagnosing methods and treatment procedures of breast cancer to minimise the risk of severity in carcinoma patients.

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Role of Repair Enzymes - Damage Control of DNA From Ageing pans

 

Shilpa Singh1*, Mitasha Purohit2

1Department of Biotechnology,Rajiv Gandhi College,  Satna-485001, M.P.,  India

2School of Studies in Environment Management, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010, M.P., India

Abstract

DNA is a precious molecule. It encodes vital information about cellular content and function. DNA repair maintains genomic stability and the loss of DNA repair capacity results in genetic instability that may lead to a decline of cellular function. The accumulation of DNA damage in multicellular organisms is linked to aging. To prevent deleterious effects, damage is balanced by repair pathways. Cells evolved a number of mechanisms to detect and repair the various types of damage that can occur to DNA, no matter whether this damage is caused by the environment or by errors in replication. The present review summarizes the various issues of DNA damage and their repair mechanism to overcome from aging.

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Consequence and Role of Telomeres on Cell-Division Rates and Life-Spans

 

Shilpa Singh1*, Mitasha Purohit2

1Department of Biotechnology,Rajiv Gandhi College,  Satna-485001, M.P.,  India

2School of Studies in Environment Management, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010, M.P., India

Abstract

There has been growing evidence that lifestyle factors may affect the health and lifespan of an individual by affecting telomere length. Telomeres are unique protein–DNA structures that comprise the termini of eukaryotic linear chromosomes. Telomere length shortens with age. Progressive shortening of telomeres leads to senescence, apoptosis, or oncogenic transformation of somatic cells, affecting the health and lifespan of an individual. We planned to focus the significance of telomeres in human health and aging and to summarize possible lifestyle factors that may affect health and longevity by altering the rate of telomere shortening.

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Use of Ternary Diagram in Formulation Design of Paracetamol Tablets

 

Jennifer Drambi Audu-Peter1*, Musa Andrew  Ibrahim1

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Jos. PMB, 2084, Jos, Nigeria

Abstract

The development of a drug into a stable and marketable product involves many stages and processes using various equipment and experimental designs, and these have taken a toll on the cost and time it takes to produce such products. It will be desirable to develop a process that can shorten the time and cost using minimal facility. The ternary diagram was used to develop such a tool chart that could be used to study the effect of formulation factors; binder, disintegrant and compression pressure on tablet properties with a view to predicting tablet characteristics. The values of each factor (less than to greater than the maximum used in tablet formulations) were plotted along each axis of the three sides of the ternary diagram. Points were selected randomly within the ternary diagram to obtain concentrations or values to be used for each factor in tablet formulation. Paracetamol tablets (500 mg) were formulated by wet granulation to give a total tablet weight of 700 mg. The tablets were evaluated for friability, hardness, disintegration time and weight variation. Regions on a ternary diagram that produced tablets batches that passed disintegration time test were delineated as satisfactory while those that failed were delineated as unsatisfactory. Subsequently, new tablet batches were formulated according to values of selected points along tie-lines drawn across satisfactory and unsatisfactory regions on two sides of the diagram. The tablets were evaluated for tablet properties in which results showed that tablets batches made from satisfactory regions passed while those from unsatisfactory regions failed. Thus ternary diagram could be used as a tool to select formulation factor values for making acceptable tablets.

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Isolation and Characterization of Flavonol Glycosides from Leaves Extract of Lupinus arboreus Sims

 

Sylvester C. Ohadoma1*, Peter A. Akah2, Chris E. Okolo1

1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Imo State University, PMB 2000, Owerri, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, P.O.BOX 551, Nsukka, Nigeria

Abstract

We planned to isolate the active constituents from methanol extract of Lupinus arboreus leaves. The crude methanol extract (CME) was fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions. The fractions were isolated from silica gel column chromatography, which were eluted with gradient mixtures. The isolated fractions were characterized by using flavonoid screening, IR, UV and NMR spectral analyses. The result of the phytochemical analysis and chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction over silica gel lead to the isolation of a flavonol glycosides, and identified as tetrahydroxyflavone-3α-rhamnoside. Bioactivity-guided result indicated tetrahydroxyflavone-3α-rhamnoside and imparts anti-inflammatory compound in this plant.

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Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Commiphora africana and Boswellia dalzielii

 

Sylvester C. Ohadoma1*, Louis U. Amazu1, Felix N. Osuala2, Samuel Iwuji3

1Department of Pharmacology, Collegeof Medicine, Imo State University, PMB 2000, Owerri, Nigeria.

2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madonna University, PMB 48  Okija Elele, Nigeria

3Department of Physiology, Federal University of Technology,PMB 1526, Owerri, Nigeria

Abstract

This study assessed the comparatively antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of Commiphora Africana and Boswellia dalzielii. The crude ethanol extracts of their dried stem bark were obtained by macerating powdered in ethanol for 72 h. The extracts were evaluated using modified agar-well diffusion technique. All extracts showed strong activity against the test gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. C. Africana (IZD, 20 mm and 15 mm) exhibited greater potency than B. dalzialii (IZD, 12 mm and 10 mm) against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively at the same concentration (100 mg/mL). S. aureus showed greatest susceptibility while P. aeruginosa was the least for both extracts. The stem bark extract of C. Africana possess greater antimicrobial activity compared to B. dalzielii.

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