Phytoconstituents, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Livistona chinensis (Jacquin), Saribus rotundifolius (Lam.) Blume and Areca catechu Linnaeus Nuts

 

Emmanuel E. Essien*, Bassey S. Antia, Esangubong I. Etuk

 Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, 520101, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Abstract

Livistona chinensis, Saribus rotundifolius and Areca catechu are palms primarily cultivated for ornamental purposes and also utilized in herbal remedies. The chemical and biological studies were conducted using standard procedures. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, de-oxy sugars, anthraquinones, phenols, flavonoids and phlobatannins in varying amounts. The total phenolics content ranged from 52.0-245.0 mg/g, DPPH radical inhibition (87.30-90.55%, 2.0 mg/ml), iron chelating activity (27.3-65.0%, 0.5 mg/ml), hydrogen peroxide scavenging (93.18-98.46%, 0.5 mg/ml), and molybdate ion reduction capacity (15.93-58.30%, 0.5 mg/ml). L. chinensis extract showed notable antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans (MIC = 75-100 µg/ml) while A. catechu and S. rotundifolius extracts were potent against all test pathogens (75-100 µg/ml), except S. typhi (150 µg/ml). However, no appreciable cytotoxic effects on human cervical (HeLa), lung (H460), breast (MCF-7) and prostate (PC-3) cancer cells at 30 µg/mL was observed for the extracts. The notable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the palm extracts are a function of their inherent bioactive constituents and a potential source of medicinally useful compounds. The chemical and biological assessment of S. rotundifolius palm nuts is reported for the first time.

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In vitro Cytotoxic, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Adoninia merrilli and Archontopheonix tukeri Fruit Pericarps

 

Emmanuel E. Essien1,2,*, Bassey S. Antia1, Aniekan U. Solomon1, Mohammad I. Choudhary2

1Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo-520101, Uyo, Nigeria

2H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Pakistan

Abstract

Adonidia merrilli (Becc.) Becc. and Archontophoenix tuckeri are palms primarily cultivated for ornamental purposes due to their exotic appearance. A number of ornamental palms have been used in traditional medicine and scientifically explored to ascertain their medicinal value. Methanol extracts of A. merrilii and A. tuckeri pericarps were screened for phytochemicals, and tested for cytotoxicity against various human carcinoma cell lines, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity using standard protocols. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, deoxy sugars, cardiac glycosides and saponins. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannin content were 52.05, 20.68, 2.58 mg/g and 40.58, 32.73, 3.09 mg/g for A. merrilli and A. tuckeri respectively. A. merrilli and A. tuckeri extracts demonstrated notable anti-proliferative activity against cervical (HeLa), lung (H460), breast (MCF-7) and prostate (PC-3) cancer cells at 30 µg/mL; A. merilli (52.90-66.51% kill; IC50: 26.53-29.70), A. tuckeri (55.62-62.21% kill; IC50: 18.73-.25.20). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (25-100 µg/mL) of the extracts against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Candida albicans were recorded. A. merrilli and A. tuckeri pericarp extracts contain potential bioactive compounds for phytomedicine and deserve further scientific investigations as the related ornamental palms, Livistona chinensis and Areca catechu. The chemical and biological studies of A. tukeri palm is reported for the first time.

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Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Anti-arthritis Activity of Isolated Fractions from Bauhinia purpureaLeaves Extracts in Rats 

 

Ashish Sarkar1, Vijay Dutt Tripathi2, Ram Kumar Sahu3, Wael Mahmoud Aboulthana4

1Institute of Pharmacy, HCPG College, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

2Sagar Institute of Technology, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

3Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

4Biochemistry Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

Abstract

Bauhinia purpureaare used as antinociceptive, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritis, analgesic, anticancer, antipyretic, anti-diabetics, anti-diarrheal activity etc. The flavonoids and polyphenol are present in Bauhinia purpureaand may play an important role in the treatment of inflammation and arthritis. Till date no one has documented about active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis activity. The present study was aimed to isolate fractions from Bauhinia purpurealeaves extracts, and assessed their anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis activity in rats. The hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of Bauhinia purpurealeaves were prepared and tested for in vitro antioxidant activity namely DPPH, total polyphenol content, total flavonol content and reducing power assay. The antioxidant activity was performed only for proper selection of extracts, to isolate the polyphenol and flavonoids fractions from extract expressing maximum antioxidant activity. The different fractions were isolated from hydroalcoholic extracts by using column chromatography. The fractions FBP5, FBP8, FBP9 and FBP10 were further investigated for phytochemical screening to determine the nature of isolated compound. The fractions FBP8, FBP9 and FBP10 were screened for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis activity in carrageenan rat induced paw oedema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma model and adjuvant induced chronic arthritis in rats. The findings of in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated that hydroalcoholic extracts expressed higher antioxidant activity compared to aqueous extract, and hence hydroalcoholic extracts was further selected for the isolation of various fractions. The results of phytochemical study imply that FBP8, FBP9 and FBP10 revealed the presence of polyphenol and flavonoids.  The fraction FBP8, FBP9 and FBP10 (25 mg/kg) exhibits significant anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis activity. The FBP9 produces maximum anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis activity compared to other fractions. These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis activity of isolated fraction was due to presence of flavonoids and polyphenols.

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Ameliorative Potential of Standardized Extract of Condalia buxifolia Reissek in Attenuating the Postoperative Pain: Evidence for the Inhibition of AMPA and Kainate in the Spinal Cord

 

Róli Rodrigues Simões1,2, Igor dos Santos Coelho2, Adriana Zambenedetti3, Marisa Jádna Silva Frederico4, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva4, Ademir Farias Morel3, Eliane Maria Zanchet5,*, Adair Roberto Soares Santos1,2,*

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, 97105 – 900, Brazil

2Laboratório de Neurobiologia da Dor e Inflamação, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900, Brazil

3Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, 97105 – 900, Brazil

4 Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900, Brazil

5Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, 97105 – 900, Brazil

Abstract

Acute pain post-surgery is one of the major problems of public health, and its treatment is still a challenge. In this study, it was investigated the analgesic effect of a standardized methanolic extract of Condalia buxifolia (MECb) (30 and 100 mg/kg, i.g.) in a plantar incision surgery (PIS) model in mice, and the possible mechanism that underlying its effect. The effect of MECb was evaluated on the hyperalgesia (mechanical, cold and heat stimuli), and in this same model, it was analyzed the effect of MECb (100 mg/kg, i.g.) on the concentration of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the paw and spinal cord. Further we investigated the effects of MECb (100 mg/kg, i.g.) on the nocifensive behaviour (spontaneous pain and hyperalgesia) induced by AMPA and kainate. Moreover, the safety profile of prolonged treatment with MECb (100 and 300 mg/kg, i.g.) and involvement of C fibers sensitive to capsaicin in its effect (100 mg/kg, i.g.) was evaluated. MECb showed a marked reduction on mechanical and heat hyperalgesia, and reduced the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NGF. The treatment with MECb prevented the nocifensive behaviour and central sensitization caused by AMPA and kainate. Moreover, the analgesic effect of MECb was not affected by the ablation of the central afferent C fibers, and it showed reduced toxicity, indicating good safety and efficacy. The current data showed, for the first time, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of MECb in an animal model of postoperative pain. The results support and suggest the use of MECb as an alternative treatment and a possible source of analgesics substances to postoperative pain.

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Endangered Medicinal Plant Psoralea corylifolia: Traditional, Phytochemical, Therapeutic Properties and Micropropagation  

 

Nelofar Gulam Nabi1*, Mukta Shrivastava1

1Govt. Maharani Laxmi Bai Girls` P.G. (Autonomous) College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462002, India

Abstract

Psoralea corylifolia is an endangered and medicinally important plant found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Its medicinal usage is reported in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the Chinese, British and the American pharmacopoeias and in different traditional system of medicines such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. From its traditional uses in health care and food, extensive phytochemical studies have been reported. The present review  reveals that wide ranges of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possesses important activities like antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal anti-inflammatory, antitumor,  hepatoprotective activit, anti-psoriasis, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory activities anti AIDS etc. Considering data from the literature, it could be demonstrated that Psoralea corylifolia possesses diverse bioactive properties and immense utilization in medicine, health care, cosmetics and as health supplements. As a health food, it is enriched with high therapeutic value with high potential for further development. The present review therefore aims to compile up to date and comprehensive information of Psoralea corylifolia with special emphasis on phytochemical and ethno medicinal uses, scientifically documented pharmacological activities and tissue culture methods for conservation.  

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Phytochemical Screening and Thin Layer Chromatography of Ficus carica Leaves Extract

 

Manik Sharma1, Abid R1*, Mehak Sajgotra2

1Department of Zoology, Bhoj Mahavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (IIIM-CSIR) Jammu, Canal Road, Jammu-180001, (J&K), India

Abstract

Ficus carica leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of various diseases namely vitiligo, diabetes, coughs, asthma, constipation and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was a preliminary phytochemical and thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of the various extracts of Ficus carica leaves. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using the standard phytochemical assays. TLC analysis of the chloroform and ethanol extract of the leaves was carried out using the solvent system Ethanol: Chloroform (9:1) and Ethanol: Hexane (3:7), respectively. The findings of the preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various chemical compounds like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, phenols, fixed oil and fats. The three Rf value (0.59, 0.78 & 0.94) and six Rf value (0.05, 0.21, 0.34, 0.51, 0.65 & 0.87) were found in TLC plate of chloroform and ethanol extracts, respectively. These studies provided referential information in regard to its identification parameters assumed significantly in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs in present scenario of lack of regulatory laws to control quality of herbal drugs.  

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Development and Validation of a Dissolution Method for Desloratadine Coated Tablets

 

Brunna Ricci Falcão, Letícia de Melo Teixeira, Francine Zachow Philippsen, Tiago Rafael Sausen*

1Curso de Farmácia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, campus Toledo, 85902–532, Brazil

Abstract

The aim of this work was the development and validation of a dissolution methodology for desloratadine-coated tablets by spectrophotometry on ultraviolet (UV). 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), pH 4.5-citrate buffer and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer were tested as dissolution medium. In addition, influences of apparatus, and rotation speed were evaluated. After an UV scan spectrum from 500 to 200 nm, to determine the maximum wavelength absorbance, samples were analyzed by UV visible spectrophotometric method. The parameters selected were 0.1 M HCl as dissolution medium, using paddles as apparatus at 50 rpm, with analysis at wavelength of 280 nm. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines, and the results showed that the dissolution methodology for desloratadine-coated tablets with 0.1 M HCl as dissolution medium, using paddles as apparatus at 50 rpm, with analysis at wavelength of 280 nm, with sampling points at 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes is specific, linear, precise and accurate and could be applied for quality control of desloratadine tablets, since there is no official monograph.

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Protective Effect of Leaves of Ficus carica Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats 

 

Manik Sharma1, Abid R1*, Younus Ahmad2, Nelofar Ghulam Nabi3

1Department of Zoology, Bhoj Mahavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2S.S.L. Jain College, Vidisha, (M.P.)-464001, India

3Govt. Maharani Laxmi Bai Girls` P.G. (Autonomous) College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462002, India

Abstract

Fig leaves (Ficus carica Linn.) belonged to the family Moraceae and used as a source of medicines for the ailment of diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity against the carbon tetrachloride induced toxic chemical in rats. The petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of Ficus carica leaves was prepared, and evaluated for phytochemical screening. The serum level of glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and bilirubin were investigated for the assessment of hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate extract. Additionally, the histological changes in liver were observed. Preliminary phytochemical investigations of the extracts of leaves of Ficus carica revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, glycosides, fats and carbohydrates. Pre-treatment with ethyl acetate extract of Ficus carica led to significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin when compared to control group rats treated CCl4 in dose-dependent manner. The outcomes of histological study revealed that there was significant reversal of histological functional of liver. In conclusion, the findings of this study validated that the Ficus carica can improve CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.  

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Comparative Effects of Quail Eggs, Quail Eggs/Vit C and Glibenclamide on Streptozocin-induced Diabetes mellitus 

 

Adebayo-Gege GI1, Seriki AS1*, Oguche BE1, Ojo RJ2 

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bingham University, Karu-900110, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Bingham University, Karu-900110, Nigeria

Abstract

In recent years, quail eggs have become a subject of interest because of its properties and medical benefits. In this study, the separate and combined effects of quail eggs and vitamin C on the blood glucose level and body weight of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were investigated. The 30 wistar rats were randomly assigned into five groups; Group I (control), Group II (diabetic rats without treatment), Group III (diabetic rats treated with raw quail eggs only), Group IV (diabetic rats treated with raw quail eggs and vitamin C) and Group V (diabetic rats treated with Glibenclamide 600 µg/kg body weight). Diabetes mellitus was induced in fasted rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). The induced rats were then treated with the Quail eggs, Quail eggs/vit C, and Glibenclamide. At the end of the 10 days of treatment, the group treated with quail eggs and vitamin C at 0.15 ml/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight per day, respectively showed a significant (p< 0.05) hypoglycaemic effect, as the mean blood glucose level in the group decreased with an increase in the mean body weight. The group treated with Glibenclamide showed similar and stronger effect of hypoglycaemia. The group treated with quail eggs alone did not show any significant hypoglycaemic effect. Consequently, the groups treated quail eggs/vit C and Glibenclamide lost significant body weight. Quail eggs alone, quail eggs combined with vit C and Glibenclamide have hypoglycaemic effect after 10 days of administration, and could therefore be used to manage diabetes mellitus. Glibenclamide is however more potent for this purpose than quail egg/vit C, which is also more potent than quail egg alone. 

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