An in vitro trial to study the effect of inclusion of different levels of coconut oil on sheep rumen methanogenesis and fermentation processes  

 

Tisa Mukharji, Aakash Srivastava, Meera Srivastava*

 Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner-334001, (Rajasthan) India

Abstract

An in vitro trial was conducted in fermentation vessels under anaerobic conditions using composite feed-1 and composite feed-2 with inclusion of different levels of Coconut Oil (CO) along with buffered rumen liquor of sheep to observe the effects of oil on rumen methanogenesis and fermentation. The Composite Feed-1(CF-1) consisted of 40% of concentrate and Composite Feed-2 (CF-2) had 25 % of concentrate. The different levels of CO used were 0.5,1 and 2 µl/ml. Among the gas production and methane concentration parameters the inclusion of CO showed a significant decrease of 38.67%. A non significant effect on gas production was noted with the inclusion of CO in CF-2. Further, a decrease in total gas production and methane concentration was observed which was highly pronounced in CF-1 as compared to CF-2. The rumen digestibility by inclusion of CO in CF-1 and CF-2 decreased significantly (P < 0.01) from control. The inclusion of CO in CF-2 did not affect Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3 –N) concentration, while in CF-1 the CO inclusion increased the NH3 –N concentration. The inclusion of CO decreased the Total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration significantly (P < 0.01). In both the diets namely CF-1 and CF-2 the A:P ratio was unaffected by CO inclusion. The inclusion of CO in CF-1 had a non significant effect in pH. However, the inclusion of CO in CF-1 and CF-2 decreased the protozoa number significantly (P < 0.01). Inclusion of oil tended to decrease Gas production (GP), Metabolizable energy (ME), Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA), True Degradability of Dry Matter (TDDM) and Microbial Biomass Production (MBP). The effect was more pronounced when CO level was 1.0µl/ml or higher. From the above gas production and fermentation parameters noticed in two diets CF-1 and CF-2 with inclusion of different levels of CO, it can be envisaged that increasing the proportion of concentrate in diets and using CO as a feed additive increases the rumen efficiency by reducing the methane concentration and gas production.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Electrophoretic Comparison between Native Protein Patterns in the Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients

 

Hatem S. Farghaly*

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University, Beni-Sueif-082, Egypt

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus is one of the main causes of chronic hepatitis in developing countries. There are 170 million affected people around the world as reported by the World Health Organization. Nowadays we are looking for monitoring the advanced tools during the most recent of the shortage reagent and equipments troubles which are strongly variables. This work studies the evaluation of diagnosis Hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses diseases by Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPE) as a marker. SPE designing is as to separate serum protein to five fractions (Albumin, Alpha-1, Alpha-2, Beta, and Gamma) to estimate its individual concentration of the five fractions for the viral infected samples. The elevated serum protein, particularly in the gamma-globulin fraction is frequently associated with HIV infection. All the samples were compared to control samples. It was found that the HCV and HIV infections caused irregular alterations in the electrophoretic protein patterns in serum of the HCV and HIV patients. These alterations were represented at the protein level by disappearance of normal protein bands and / or appearance of abnormal unique bands. Native proteins expressed as a result of the infection with HCV and HIV was detected electrophoretically by vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation and Bioavailability Study of Amitriptyline Hydrochloride from the Optimized Oral Fast Dissolving Films

 

Zeina D. Salman1, Nidhal K. Maraie1, Mustafa G. Alabbassi1, Mowafaq M. Ghareeb2

1Collage of Pharmacy, University of Al-Mustansiriya, Baghdad-Iraq.

2Collage of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad-Iraq.

Abstract

The present investigation was undertaken with the objective of developing fast dissolving film(s) of a tricyclic antidepressant drug amitriptyline hydrochloride in order to improve its bioavailability, optimize its therapeutic action especially when used to treat major depression and to enhance the compliance for the developmentally disable, mentally ill, elderly and pediatric patients. Fast dissolving dosage forms have acquired great importance in pharmaceutical industry because of their unique properties. Ten formulations were prepared by solvent casting method using different polymer types, plasticizer types, surfactant concentrations and different ratio of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and maltodextrin. The prepared films were evaluated for folding endurance, thickness, drug content, in vitro/in vivo disintegration time, drug release and tensile test. The optimized formula F8 containing HPMC 15cp and maltodextrin in 1:1 ratio showed minimum in vitro/in vivo disintegration time 16.8, 13.2 seconds respectively, highest dissolution rate i.e. T80% 1.1 minutes, D2 min (%) 89.77% and satisfactory mechanical properties. The optimized film was further evaluated for bioavailability compared with a marketed solution (Amitriptyline Hydrochloride®), the study based on cross over design using experimental animals (rabbits). The pharmacokinetic results revealed that the fast dissolving films has higher peak blood concentration (Cmax, 0.927µg/ml) within shorter time (Tmax, 2 hours), indicating rapid absorption and faster onset of action with acceptable bioavailability value. These findings suggest that the fast dissolving film containing amitriptyline hydrochloride is expected to become one of choices for the treatment of acute depression.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Knowledge and Attitude Towards Antibiotic Usage Among General Public in Shah Alam, Malaysia

 

Muhammad Qamar1*,NurulHidayah Sheikh Abdullah2,Jiyauddin Khan2, Ahmad Mahmud1, Amiruddin Ahmad1

1Faculty of Pharmacy, MAHSA University, 50490 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia.

2School of Pharmacy, Management and Science University, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Abstract

The emergence of superbugs and antibiotic resistance bacteria nowadays make a limited choice of antibiotic available for treatment. This circumstance is an alarming to public health. Thus, public knowledge and attitude towards antibiotic usage play an important role in the success of treatment process. This study aimed to evaluate public knowledge and attitude towards antibiotic utilization and the association of knowledge with demographic variables. A self-administered cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 380 respondents by using a pre-validate questionnaire at public places in Shah Alam, Malaysia from January 2014 to April 2014.

From this study, it was analyzed that 43% of respondents have good knowledge towards antibiotic. Majority of the respondents knew antibiotic is used for bacterial infection. However, 40% of respondents misunderstood that antibiotic is indicated for viral infection. Half of the respondents know how to differentiate antibiotic with other drugs. High number of respondents, 63.2% knows that they need to complete full course of antibiotic, however in the attitude statement; only 57.9% of respondents complete their antibiotic course.Based on the percentage of correct response on the attitude statement positive attitude was observed. However, 57.4% still expect antibiotic to be prescribed for common cold. Demographic characteristics such as gender, race, educational level and healthcare occupation were found significant association with knowledge of antibiotic usage. It has been concluded that although knowledge of public is good, public should be stressed out of the importance of correct usage of antibiotic and promote changes in their attitude towards antibiotic usage. 

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Assessment of antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of Hemidesmus indicus root extracts

 

Prasanna Purohit1, Ritu Thakur Bais1, Pratibha Singh1, Shagufta khan2

1Department of Botany, Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls P.G.Autonomous College, Shivaji Nagar Bhopal (M.P.)  

2Grow Tips Biotech, Bhopal (M.P).

Abstract

The Hemidesmus indicus is used to cure leprosy, leucoderma, itching, skin disease, asthma, bronchitis, leucorrhoea, dysentery, piles, syphilis, and paralysis. The present study was aimed to investigate the phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Hemidesmus indicus root.The root extracts of Hemidesmus indicus were prepared using different solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and distilled water. The phytochemical screening of the root extracts was performed. The presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, polyphenol, saponins and terpenoids were indicated by the test conducted. The antibacterial activity of the ethanol and aqueous extract of Hemidesmus indicus root was tested by agar diffusion method. Zones of Inhibition produced by both extract in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/ml against selected strains was measured and compared with those of standard drug ciprofloxacin (10 μg/ml). Both extract recorded significant activity against all the test bacteria. The highest zones of growth inhibition were exhibited by ethanol extract against all the microorganisms compared to be aqueous extract.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Opioid receptor-dependent modulation of insulin-release in pancreatic beta-cells

 

Alok Paul, Nuri Guven, Nikolas Dietis*

Division of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001, Australia

Abstract

In this study we aimed to look at the effects of opioid-receptor selective agonists and antagonists on insulin secretion in the pancreatic β-cell line RIN-5F. Cells were treated for 24 hours with 1μM of selective agonists (DAMGO for MOP, DPDPE for DOP, U50488 for KOP) in the presence or absence of 10μM of selective antagonists (CTOP for MOP, naltrindole for DOP, norBNI for KOP). An enzyme-based immunoassay was used to detect the amount of insulin in the supernatant, using a standard curve generated from known concentrations of rat insulin. A trypan blue viability assay was performed to assess the toxicity of each treatment and the secreted insulin was expressed as per 103 viable cells. Treatment with DAMGO or DPDPE caused an increase in secreted insulin by 94.2% and 76.3% respectively, compared to the non-treated controls. Co-treatment of DAMGO and CTOP was able to cancel out the agonists’ effect. However, CTOP itself was able to increase insulin secretion by 72% when compared to control. These results suggest that opioid-induced insulin secretion may be based on G-protein independent mechanisms. In addition, none of the KOP-receptor selective ligands tested here were able to significantly affect insulin secretion compared to control, whereas naltrindole was highly toxic to pancreatic β-cells since it induced maximum cell death. Collectively, these findings suggest that MOP and DOP receptor-binding opioids might be more relevant in increasing insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells than KOP receptor ligands.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

New Two Sensors PVC- Membrane and Chemically Carbon Paste for Determination of Antidepressant Drug Escitalopram Oxalate in Bulk, Cipralex and Human Fluids

 

Amal F. Khorshid*

Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University, NUB, Beni-Sueff, 082-Egypt

Abstract

Preparation and construction of a new polyvinyl chloride PVC-membrane and chemically modified carbon paste (CMCP) sensors based on ion-pair exchanger escitalopram-silicotungstic (Es-ST) (Sensor 1) and escitalopram-silicomolybdic (Es-SM) (Sensor 2). The effect of several plasticizers and composition of ion-exchangers on the performance characteristics of the sensors was studied. Sensors(1, 2) with 1% composition and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer in PVC-membrane showed Nernstian slopes ranged from 57.5- 59.5 ±0.1 mV/decade over the concentration ranged from 5.0 x 10-7-1.0 x 10-2 M with the life span not less than two months and pH 2.5-7.5 with a detection limit 0.1 nM. While in (CMCP) sensors (1, 2) exhibited with 3% composition and tricresylphthalate (TCP) as binder an excellent Nernstian slopes 59.5, 60.5±0.5 mV/decade for 1 and 2 respectively and a wide concentration range from 1.0 x 10-7-1.0 x 10-2 M and pH 2.5-7.5 with a detection limit 0.5 nM. The sensors reflected high selectivity towards different anions, cations, sugars and amino acids and was recommended by IUPAC. The standard addition, the calibration curve and potentiometric titration methods were used for determination escitalopram in its bulk powder, pharmaceutical tablets Cipralex, human plasma/urine and monitoring profile for the tablet in vitro-dissolution rates. The recoveries were excellent and with good agreement compared with British Pharmacopoeia.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML 

Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Gastroretentive Floating Tablets of Macrolide Antibiotic Based on Effervescent Technology Using Clarithromycin as a model drug

 

Lagnajit Mahapatra*, Gali Vidyasagar

 *Deevena College of Pharmacy, Suryapet, Nalgonda - 508 213 (Telangana), India

Abstract

The present study was carried out with an objective of preparation and in vitro evaluation of floating tablets of Clarithromycin by using HPMC K4M and HPMC E15LV. The floating tablets were based on effervescent approach using sodium bicarbonate a gas generating agent. The formulated tablets were investigated for the quality control tests such as weight variation, hardness, friability, swelling index, floating lag time, and total floating time. The in vitro release study of the tablets was performed in 0.1 N HCl as a dissolution media. The results of the present study clearly indicates the promising potential of Clarithromycin floating system as an alternative to the conventional dosage and other sustained release formulations. The drug release of optimized formulation was found to follow zero order and Korsmeyerâ€ÂPeppas kinetic models and r2 value nearer to one and n value was found to be 0.8420 and 1.0703. Formulation F13 exhibited better Gastroretentive controlled drug release in comparison to other prepared formulation.

HTML FULL TEXT    PDF    XML