Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Leaves and Stem of Murraya koenigii

 

Vipin Chandra Pal*, Bhuwanendra Singh, Arshad Ahamad

Radha Govind Institute of Pharmacy, Chandausi, Moradabad (UP), India

Abstract

Murraya koenigii has been widely used as medicine in indigenous system of medicine. It is used as an analgesic, febrifuge, stomachic, carminative and for the treatment of dysentery skin eruption. The present study was planned for details pharmacognostical studies of Murraya koenigii leaves and stem. Macroscopical characters and microscopical characters of leaves and stem were perceived. The Physicochemical properties (total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, water soluble extractive, methanol soluble extractive, moisture content and foaming index) of bark powder were studied. The values of physicochemical can also be used for standardization of Murraya koenigii. These studies provided referential information in regard to its identification parameters assumed significantly in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs in present scenario of lack of regulatory laws to control quality of herbal drugs.

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Effects of Salt Stress on Cell Surface Properties and Symbiotic Performance of Root Nodulating Bacteria

 

Ashok Kumar Singh1, Gauri Singh1*, Rajendra Prasad Bhatt2

 1Department of Microbiology, Dolphin (PG) Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Manduwala, Dehradun-248007 (Uttarakhand) India.

2Department of Botany and Microbiology, H.N.B. Garhwal University (A Central University), SriNagar-246174 Garhwal (Uttarakhand) India.

Abstract

In the current study fifty root nodulating bacterial strains isolated from Cicer arietinum (Chickpea) and Vigna radiata (Mungbean) nodules were subjected to different NaCl concentrations. Out of these 20 salt tolerant isolates were selected for the production of cell surface component like β-glucan, lipopolysaccharide, exopolysaccharide and motility under salt stress condition. Symbiotic performance of Vigna radiata and Cicer arietinum were done under salt stress condition by using 4 isolates (CMR3,CMR13,MR5.MR11) which showed the tolerant behavior in all cell surface properties and one sensitive isolate (MR30) was used for comparision.All growth parameters of selected  legumeswere enhanced at 5% salt concentration as compare to control in CMR3,CMR13,MR5.MR11. A decline in all parameters was observed in isolate that does not show good cell surface components under salt stress. This shows the inhibition of cell surface properties under salt stress, affects the symbiotic performance of both parameters negatively. The present study concludes that under salt stress conditions, tolerant strains successfully overcome the stressful environmental conditions by maintaining the factors, essential for symbiosis in an ideal system.

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Comparative Assessment of Lupeol in Wild plant and In Vitro Callus Culture of Hemidesmus indicus by HPLC Technique

 

Prasanna Purohit1*, Ritu Thakur Bais1, Pratibha Singh1, Shagufta khan2

1Department of Botany, Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls P.G. Autonomous College, Shivaji Nagar Bhopal (M.P.)-492021, India  

2Grow Tips Biotech, Bhopal (M.P)-492021, India

Abstract

Medicinal plants are used as traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants are one of the richest sources of secondary metabolites. The roots of Hemidesmus indicus served as the remedy for leprosy, syphilis, leucoderma, asthma, dysentery, fever and blood, kidney and urinary diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the quantity of lupeol present in callus and wild plant extract of Hemidesmus indicus. The root callus was initiated on MS medium fortified with varied concentrations and combination of different auxins like, 2-4 Dichloro acetic acids (2-4D), napthalene acetic acid (NAA) and cytokinin like, kinetin (Kn)  in 250 ml culture flasks. The content of lupeol in callus and root extracts was analyzed by HPLC technique. The highest percentage of callus induction (88.00 %) was observed in MS medium (C7) containing 1.0 mg/l NAA with highest callus growth in terms of fresh weight (946.48±6.6) which resulted in soft friable callus. The callus produced by C7 was used selected for further study. The HPLC study revealed that the quantity of lupeol present in callus extract was more compared to the wild plant extract of Hemidesmus indicus.  

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Opioids in Depression: Not Quite There Yet

 

Xin Yin, Nuri Guven, Nikolas Dietis*

Division of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001, Australia

Abstract

Depression is a common mental disorder that affects people of all ages across the world. All current pharmacological interventions are based on the monoamine theory of depression and aim to increase the concentrations of monoamines in the brain. However, since many patients show no response or do not tolerate conventional therapies, there is an urgent need to identify new therapeutic targets, explore new molecular pathways and develop novel drugs against depression. Opioids, a class of compounds used against chronic pain, have major analgesic properties, but they are also well known for their anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. In preclinical and clinical studies, some opioids showed encouraging results to alleviate depression-like symptoms. Although our knowledge about the antidepressant effects of opioids stretches back to the late ‘70s, we still have a long way to cover. Predominantly, a clear understanding about their mode of action as well as the opioid-associated issues of addiction and convulsions, are the main challenges that need to be addressed before we will see opioid compound used in the clinic against depression.

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A Comparative Study of the Antibacterial Activity of Clove and Rosemary Essential Oils on Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

 

Baydaa Hameed Abdullah*, Suhad Faisal Hatem, Widad Jumaa

Department of clinical and laboratory sciences, Pharmacy college, Al Mustansiriyah University. Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract

The essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove bud) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) were obtained by hydro-distillation. The antimicrobial activity of clove bud oil and rosemary oil was investigated by agar well diffusion method against four multidrug resistant strains namely Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis as well as two standard strains, Staphylococcus aureusATCC29213 and Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC27853. Both essential oils exhibited inhibitory effects towards all the test organisms, clove essential oil had antibacterial activity little higher than of rosemary oil, MICs ranged from 0.312% (v/v) to 1.25% (v/v) for all tested bacteria while MICs for rosemary oil ranged from 0.312% (v/v) to 5 % (v/v). Based on this finding, it may be suggested that these essential oils may be used as natural antibacterial agents to treat infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria.

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Protective Effects of Montelukast and L-Carnitine on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Lung Injury

 

Emad H.M. Hassanein1, Amira M. ABO-Youssef2, Basim A.S. Messiha2*, Ramadan A.M. Hemeida1

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt.

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Sueif University, Beni Sueif, Egypt.

Abstract

The major aim of this work was to study the protective effects of the cysteinyl-leukotriene antagonist montelukast (ML) and L-Carnitine (LC) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced pulmonary injury in experimental rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were categorized at random into five groups of 6 rats each. The first group served as normal control group. All other groups were injected once with CP (150 mg/kg, i.p.). The second group was kept as CP toxicity control group The third group was injected with ML (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) once daily for 10 consecutive days before CP injection. The fourth group received LC (250 mg/kg/day, i.p.) once daily for 10 consecutive days before CP injection. The fifth group received ML plus LC once daily for 10 consecutive days before CP injection. The protective effects of these drugs were evaluated by assessment of lung glutathione reduced (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitrite (NO2-) levels as oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers. This is in addition to assessment of serum levels of cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) and lipooxygenase (LOX) as inflammatory parameters. Histopathological study was performed to confirm results of biochemical estimations. Pretreatment with ML, LC and their combinations effectively increased the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzyme GST and SOD in comparison with CP control rats Moreover, the serum activities of inflammatory enzymes COX-2 and LOX markedly decreased. In addition, ML, LC and their combinations effectively alleviated histopathological changes in lung tissue induced by CP. The results of this investigation show that ML, LC and their combination are true protective agents against CP-induced pulmonary injury in rats and may be promising for further clinical trials.

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Modulatory Effect of Lovastatin on Therapeutic Efficiency of Conventional Antidiabetics on Pancreatic and Cardiovascular Complications of Diabetes

 

Ehab A.M. EL-Shoura1, Basim A.S. Messiha2*, Amira M. ABO-Youssef2, Ramadan A.M. Hemeida1

 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt.

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Sueif University, Beni Sueif, Egypt.

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to assess the possible modulatory effect of lovastatin (LOVA) on metformin (MET) and gliclazide (GLIC) on pancreatic and cardiovascular complications in rats with experimentally induced diabetes. Male Swiss rats were randomly assigned to seven groups. Group 1 served as normal control group. Group 2 served as diabetic control group, treated with streptozotocin (STZ) alone. Groups 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 received LOVA, MET, GLIC, LOVA plus MET and LOVA plus GLIC, respectively, for 30 consecutive days after treatment with STZ. To evaluate the modulatory effect of LOVA, blood glucose level was assessed coupled with pancreatic tissue levels of oxidative stress markers including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production, glutathione reduced (GSH) stores, total nitrite (NO2-) production as well as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Degree of lipid derangement was evaluated by measuring serum levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as blood fibrinogen (FBG) level and white blood cells (WBCs) count were evaluated to assess generalized inflammatory and hematological disorders. Combination of LOVA with either MET or GLIC significantly corrected STZ-induced alterations of serum levels of glucose, HMG-CoA reductase, TGs, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, CRP and IL-6, tissue contents of TBARS, GSH, NO2-, GST and SOD, as well as blood FBG level and WBCs count as compared to either drug alone. LOVA combination with MET but not with GLIC could modulate serum HDL-C level, whilst LOVA combination with GLIC but not with MET could modulate pancreatic tissue CAT activity. These results show that combination of LOVA with MET or GLIC significantly modulates their effects on diabetes-induced pancreatic and cardiovascular complications, including hyperglycemia, oxidative and nitrosative stress, dyslipidemia, inflammatory disorders, hyperfibrinogenemia and leucocytosis.  

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