Conference Proceeding of National Seminar on Current Status and Future Scope for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Drug Discovery and Development

Organized by Himachal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (HIPER), Nadaun Himachal Pradesh, India from 23-24 February 2018

Received: 07-Mar-2018 , Accepted: 23-Jul-2018

Conference Proceeding

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Abstract

IInd National Seminaron “Current Status and Future Scope for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Drug Discovery and Development” was organized by Himachal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (HIPER), Nadaun Himachal Pradesh, India from23-24 February 2018. The seminar was sponsored by Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi and Himachal Pradesh Technical University, Hamirpur. The conference invites all the participants across the various states of India to attend and share their insights and convey recent developments in the field of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology seems to have gained a widespread interest in the recent years. This conference had a variety of keynote lectures, Oral Presentation, Poster Presentations, Scientific Quiz Competition and discussions with renowned speakers, Pharma and medical Professionals, healthcare Professionals and leading specialists involved in the field of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

KEYNOTE TALK

Phytosomes as a Novel Approach Towards Better Therapeutic Efficacy of Herbal Formulations: Current Challenges and Potential Opportunities

Dr. Ram Kumar Sahu

Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur (CG)-493111, India

Abstract

Herbal products always have great concern of denaturation and bioavailability. There is so many novel approaches are available in the form NDDS. Despite these approaches liposomes and Phytosomes are most suitable novel approaches for herbal drugs to overcome this kind of problems. Phytosome are lipid compatible molecular complex. It is a novel approach to drug delivery system which addresses the limitations of the conventional drug delivery systems. Phytosomes are developed by incorporating standardized plant extract or water soluble bioactive plant constituent into phospholipids to make lipid compatible molecular complex. The phytosomes shows improved absorption, hence produces better bioavailability than the conventional herbal extracts. Further it provokes a cell which is the expensive component of herbal extract which protected from damage by digestive secretion and gut microbe. There is numerous commercially available product based on Phytosomes are available in the market which is having better therapeutic role as compared to conventional dosage form. The presentation highlights key findings of recent research work conducted on Phytosomes with our own viewpoints which can give the new directions and advancements to herbal dosage forms and the technical aspects of phyto-phospholipid formulations to face the future challenges.

 

Nanoparticles: Emerging carriers for drug delivery

Prof. (Dr.) Rajender Guleria

Govt. Pharmacy College, Kangra, Nagrota Bagwan, H.P.

Abstract

The major drawback of most of conventional but successful medicines is their decrasesed bioavailability and lack of specificity to the target organs. The recent years has seen an upsurgence of novel drug delivery system, incorporated and synergized with the nanotechnological advancements. Nanotechnology involves reduction of particle size of medicine to the nanomoleculear level that not only increase rate of absorption, increase potency but also lead to successful targeting of specific sites spring vital organs form life threatening toxicities.  The conversion of a particle to nano scale size changes the properties of the material such as increase in surface area, dominance of quantum effects often associated with minute sizes, higher surface area to volume ratio etc. and varies material’s magnetic, thermal and electrical property.  The nanoparticle is coated by polymer, which releases the drug by controlled diffusion or erosion from the core across the polymeric membrane or matrix. To develop a successful nanoparticulate system, both drug release and polymer biodegradation are important consideration factors. There is a wide range of nanoparticulate materials and structures being developed for the delivery of therapeutic compounds. Each has its own particular advantages, but as these nanoparticles become optimized for their specific application, the outcome will be better-controlled through the use of advanced material, improved control of particle size, and better understanding of interface between the biological and material surfaces, and their effects in vivo.

 

Nanoinformatics

Prof. Narasimhan B

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Harayana

Email: naru2000us@yahoo.com

Abstract

Nanomaterials generally refers to materials containing a significant proportion of particles with at least one dimension between 1-100 nm (a nanometre is one-billionth of a metre), which is about a thousandth of the width of human hair. Nanoscale materials can include nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanofilms etc. The different fields that find potential applications of nanotechnology includes Health and Medicine, Electronics, Transportation, Energy & Environment and Space exploration. Nanomaterials are progressively more being used for commercial purposes and in consumer products leading to increased direct and indirect exposure in humans. In the field of medicine, nanoparticles are purposefully injected into the human body. For drug delivery and imaging nanomaterials are often deliberately coated with biomolecules such as protein,

DNA and monoclonal antibodies to aim particular cells. The novel physicochemical properties of these engineered nanomaterials may initiate new mechanisms of injury and toxicological effects due to destructive interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the environment. Therefore there is a need to consider the toxicity of nanomaterials before marketing any nanoformulation. The nanoinformatics is a field that  Correlates physicochemical properties of nanomaterials with their toxicities by QSAR analysis like Hansch analysis, CoMFA analysis and docking studies. However, the lack of high quality experimental data, lack of sufficient molecular descriptors to express the specificity of nanostructure and limited knowledge about the interaction of biological system and nanomaterials are the limiting factors of the nanoinformatics. There are number of organizations like OECD, NIOSH etc. are making strategies for the human health and environmental safety aspects of nanomaterials.

 

Toxicity of Nano Particles: Basics And Key Regulatory Perspectives

Dr. Ashok Kumar Tiwary,

Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research, Punjab University, Patiala – 147 002 INDIA

Abstract

The interest in Nanoparticles is not new. However, the recent surge in considering nano particles for delivering variety of disease treatment materials like drugs, genes, proteins, plasmids etc has led to wide spread practice of designing them in many laboratories. Researchers are busy in trying different methods ranging from synthesis, particle size reduction, multiple emulsion-precipitation processes etc to prepare nano particles of interest. Their attempts aim at obtaining the smallest size of particles in a quest to claim suitability of process for preparing finest nano particles.

However, most researchers forget to consider the optimum size of nano particles required for a particular mode / route of drug delivery. Size of nano particle required for a particular application varies with the ultimate affect desired. For example, too small nano particles are prone to opsonization in the body. They are also not suitable for inhalation if the affect desired is for brain drug delivery. Very small (< 2.5 micron) particles easily get transported to the alveoli. Size of nano particles obtained depends on many formulation and process variables few of which may not be in the hands of researcher for easy manipulation.

The size of nano particles is often related to its toxicity. This stems from the inherent properties bestowed on nano particles including rapid reactivity due to enormous surface area, exposure of functional groups, ability of easy transport into airway pathway etc. Hence, it is important to optimize the nano particle preparation processes to obtain the correct particle size range for a particular application with desired drug entrapment and release properties with minimum toxicity during manufacturing as well as after administration.

This lecture will aim at deliberating upon various key issues relating to types of nanoparticles, their properties and regulatory issues related to their toxicity.

 

Lipid Based Nanocarriers : Present and Future scenario

Dr Vikas Rana

Pharmaceutics Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala

E mail:  vikas_pbi@rediffmail.com; vikas@pbi.ac.in

Abstract

The lymphatic route provides the successful delivery of drugs with poor aqueous solubility particularly for drugs to treat cancer and human immunodeficiency virus. These days the main focus of research activities is on the development of delivery systems having improved bioavailability attributes. However, the complexity of gastro intestinal tract leads to decreased ease of design of dosage form specifically delivered via oral route. Thus, requires modification in conventional oral delivery systems. The undesirable increase in molecular weight, log octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), lipophilicity, and low water solubility of drugs forced researchers to search alternative routes of drug delivery. The lymphatic route of drug targeting is the most useful, effective and industrially acceptable route of drug administration. The major purpose of lymphatic targeting is to provide an effective anti HIV treatment and anticancer chemotherapy. Lipidic nanocarriers like liposomes, nanoemulsion, solid lipid nanoparticles, etc. were found to be promising nanocarriers for lymphatic targeting for a vast therapeutic variety of drugs. This lecture is on complete compilation of delivery systems of lipid based nanoformulations via lymphatic delivery utilizing different routes.

 

ORAL PRESENTATION

Total 48 abstract published for Oral Presentation (HIPER/O/01 to HIPER/O/48). Some are available on HTML format while others are accessible in PDF file 

HIPER/O/01

Structure Based Screening and Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Natural Flavonoids for MIF-Inhibition as Wound Healing Agents

1,2Shravan Paswan, 1,2Preet Verma, 1Ch.V. Rao, 2Sajal Srivastava

1Department of Ethno pharmacology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-NBRI, Lucknow

2Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, UP, Lucknow Campus, Gomati Nagar, Lucknow

ABSTRACT: The skin is one of the largest organs in the body that performs numerous vital functions including fluid homeostasis, thermoregulation, immunologic, neurosensory and metabolic functions. The skin also provides primary protection against infection by acting as a physical barrier. When this barrier is damaged, pathogens have a direct route to infiltrate the body, potentially resulting in infection. Inhibitions of many targets are responsible for the wound healing process through different pharmacological mechanisms such as, Antithrombin-III (AT-III), Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1).  Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is identified as evolutionarily, central regulator of innate immunity with highly conserved cytokine that was originally described as an activity of cognate T cell supernatants that inhibits macrophage migration. The structural uniqueness of MIF attracts findings of novel natural medicament for wound healers by inhibition of MIF. The aim of the study consists of docking approach using bioinformatics tools on MIF (PDB ID: 2OOH) by using GLIDE. This direct drug design approach identified some most promising natural flavonoids and their further ADME prediction. The crucial residues of the binding domain of protein were examined by described crystal structure of protein with Carbonyloxime (OXIM) as essential and were associated in the interactions with the potential hit(s). Further, MD Simulation studies was performed on most likely hit that showed a root mean square deviation and root mean square fluctuation of protein-ligands signifies the stability of docked composite. In this study, we were analyzed, the main structural features in flavonoids moiety, which is responsible MIF inhibition and help in decrease of delayed wound healing. These exercises will positively provide findings of newer natural flavonoids having improved hits as active inhibitor to the lead(s) finding direction in drug discovery.

 

HIPER/O/02

Pharmaco-Informatics Evaluation of Natural Compounds for TACE Inhibition as Hepatoprotective Candidate

1,2Preet Verma, 1,2Shravan Paswan, 1Ch.V.Rao, 2Sajal Srivastava

1Department of Ethno pharmacology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-NBRI, Lucknow

2Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow Campus, Gomati Nagar, Lucknow

ABSTRACT: Perceptivity of the liver to injury by such agents is much higher than any other organ because of its central role in metabolism as well as its ability to concentrate and bio transform xenobiotics. Liver is the main detoxifying organ in the body. However, continuous exposure to certain chemotherapeutic agents, drugs, environmental toxins, viral infections or bacterial invasion can trigger liver injury and eventually lead to various liver diseases. TNF‑α, the primary pro‑inflammatory protein synthesized by Kupffer cells, initiates cascade of cytokines that mediate the inflammatory response and also in the early stage of liver damage.

In the current study, direct drug design procedure applied on the virtual library of Natural product downloaded from IB Screen NP database. Natural TACE (TNF-α-converting enzyme) inhibitor were screened by using molecular docking, ADME and binding energy calculations The important amino acid residues of the ligands binding domain of TACE (PDB ID 2FV5) were scrutinized by reported crystal structure of TACE with IK682 as essential and were associated in the interactions with the potential natural hit(s). Additional, the most hopeful hit was considered for molecular dynamics simulation of 10nanosconds showed a root mean square deviation and root mean square fluctuation of protein-ligands signifies the stability of complex. In this study, we were analyzed; the natural compounds barriers for interaction with TACE along with the stability of hit in aqueous medium using MD simulation studies. These exercises will enthusiastically offer space for treating hepatotoxicity in targeted manner by natural compound(s).          

 

HIPER/O/03

Nanofibers: Theranostic Application in Targeted Delivery

Charu Misra, Awadh Bihari Yadav

Centre of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad

ABSTRACT: Nanomaterial-based drug carriers are of signiï¬Âcant research interest at the interface of nanotechnology as they facilitate efficient loading, targeted delivery and controlled release of medicinal drugs. As potential nano carriers, carbon based nano fibers like fullerenes, carbon Nanotubes, grapheme and diamond have attracted considerable attention with their unique features that includes optical, mechanical, chemical and thermal properties, raising tremendous interest for their potential pharmaceutical applications. This presentation apprehends various types of carbon based nanocarrier, chemistry behind the molecular structure of these carriers along with their importance in the targeted delivery. It focuses on the fundamental of the multidimensional aspects of carbon Nanotubes synthesis and their fictionalization revealing the benefits of different nanocarrier. The descriptions also include comparative study on different types of carbon based nanocarrier and various methods for drug delivery. It explores the unique physical properties of carbon nanomaterial allows them to remove biologically toxic materials. It also fascinates the study by its optical biosensor and biological application.Carbon based structures by various technique concerning to their physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Several challenges and their possible resolutions including nanostructure conjugates in nano metric range, controlling stability promising drug delivery options due to symmetric nature, higher drug loading, non-toxic nature and better cell targeting potentials are some of applications are discussed in details.

 

HIPER/O/04

Computational study of searching potential inhibitor for DPP-IV using Target based approach and Molecular dynamics Simulation for the medication of Type2 DM

Virendra Nath*1, Vipin Kumar1

1Department of Pharmacy, School of Chemical Sciences and Pharmacy, Central University of Rajasthan, Kishangarh, Ajmer-305817

ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a metabolic health problem worldwide affecting the percentage in population. The present scenario of TypeII DM treatments have serious side effects and thus, emphasize further need to develop some novel targeted therapies. DPP-IV (PDB ID: 2ONC) signifies an attention-grabbing target for developing novel antidiabetic agents. In the current study, Virtual screening using chemoinformatic tools of DPP-IVinhibitorevaluated by docking simulation studies using GLIDE version6.9. This structure based drug design approach identified some most promising candidate compounds and their further ADME and binding energy prediction supported the weeding-out approach od undesirable compounds. The key residues of the binding pocket of target were analyzed by reported crystal structure of protein with alogliptin as essential and were associated in the interactions with the potential hit(s). Further, the most promising hit was studied by using molecular dynamics simulation showed a root mean square deviation and root mean square fluctuation of protein-ligand signifies the stability of docked complex. In this study, we were analyzed, the main structural features along with the chemical scaffold for better picture of protein ligand interactions compounds having different topographies named as; hydrophilic region, hydrophobic region, essentiality of electron withdrawing or electron donating groups etc.. These exercises will optimistically provide space for capably designing, targeting and synthesis of newer improved hits as active to the lead(s) finding direction in drug discovery.

  

HIPER/O/05

IN-SITU OCULAR GEL FOR FUNGAL INFECTION

Ruchika Sharma, M S Ashawat, VinayPandit

Department of pharmaceutics, Laureate institute of pharmacy, Kathog, Kangra (H.P)

ABSTRACT: In-situ gels are systems which are applied as solution or suspension are capable of undergoing rapid sol-to-gel. In-situ gelling systems are viscous polymer based liquids that exhibit sol-to-gel phase transition on the ocular surface due to change in a specific physico-chemical parameter like temperature, ionic strength or pH.In-situ gel enhanced precorneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision to overcome this problem.Ocular drug delivery is one of the most fascinating and challenging tasks facing the Pharmaceutical researchers. One of the major barriers of ocular medication is to obtain and maintain a therapeutic level at the site of action for prolonged period of time.A major problem in ocular therapeutics is the attainment of optimal drug concentration at the site of action. Ophthalmic insitu gel generally more comfortable than in soluble or soluble insertion and less blurred vision as compare to ointment .Fungal eye infection are extremely rare, but they can be serious.Fungal keratitis is an important cause of vision loss in developing countries characterized by a corneal epithelial defect and inflammation of the corneal stroma.The temperature sensitive in situ gel formulations, undergo phase transition from liquid to semisolid gel upon exposure to physiological eye temperature. These are free-flowing liquid at room temperature and easy to administer into the eye as drops.Infection or inflammation of cornea (the clear, front layer of the eye) is known askeratitis, and inflammation or infection in the interior of the eye is called endophthalmitis. Many different types of fungi can cause eye infections. Fungal keratitis is an infection of the cornea.A fungal keratitis is an inflammation of the eyes cornea (called keratitis) that results from infection by fungal organism. Keratomycosis is the Greek terminology equivalent of fungal keratitis- it is the fungal infection of the cornea, the anterior part of the eye which covers the pupil. Those experiencing these symptoms are typically advised to immediately visit the appropriate eye care professional. Eye infection can be caused by many different organisms, including bacteria, viruses, amoeba and fungi.

 

POSTER PRESENTATION

Total 162 abstract published for Poster Presentation (HIPER/P/01 to HIPER/P/162). Fives absttracts are available on HTML format while others are accessible in PDF file

HIPER/P/01

Nanocosmecuticals: Pros and Cons

Karuna Kumari,* Samriti Saklani, Meena, Munish Kumar, Vivek Sharma, Rajender Guleria

Government College of Pharmacy, Rohru, Distt. Shimla, Himachal Pradesh-171207

 ABSTRACT: Cosmeceuticals, the fastest growing segment of the personal care industry fits the niche between a drug and cosmetic. They have measurable biological action on the skin like a drug but are regulated as cosmetic since they affect appearance. Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale and has found a special place in development of cosmeceuticals as smaller particles are readily absorbed into the skin and repair damage easily and efficiently. The primary advantages of using nanoparticles in cosmeceuticals include improvement in the stability of cosmetic ingredients by encapsulating within the nanoparticles; efficient protection of the skin from harmful ultraviolet rays, aesthetically pleasing products, targeting of active ingredient to the desired site and controlled release of active ingredients for prolonged effect. Although, industrial use of nanoparticles has created new opportunities, but it also presents increased risks as increasing number of workers and consumers are exposed to nanomaterials. Human routes of exposure include inhalation, ingestion and dermal. The nanoparticles in the respiratory system interact with respiratory epithelium membrane and may travel via the nasal nerves to the brain and also because of their size, these nanoparticles can easily gain access to the blood stream and are transported to the various organs. A research on toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated that their subcutaneous administration to pregnant mice result in brain damage and reduced sperm production in male offspring beside causing cell toxicity in test tube studies. Cobalt-chromium nanoparticles can destroy human fibroblast cells across an intact cellular barrier. Concentration of silver that is lethal for bacteria is also lethal for both keratinocytes and fibroblasts and may also cause organ toxicity and teratogenicity. Thus incorporation of nanoparticles and cosmeceuticals should be a precautious approach

 

HIPER/P/02

Silver Nanoparticles:  Extending life to food

Manisha Sharma,* Shruti Choudhary, Vasundhara Sahi, Pankaj Sharma,

Vivek Sharma & Rajender Guleria

Govt. College of Pharmacy, Rohru, Distt. Shimla, Himachal Pradesh-171207

ABSTRACT: Food is very indispensable material to the living beings yet, every year an increasing amount of edible food is lost along the food supply chain as spoilage is very common problem throughout the world due to the notorious activity of food borne pathogens. Thus it is necessary to think about the food safety, quality and to increase the shelf life of it by unraveling new antimicrobials and antioxidant agents. The incorporation of nanotechnology to food industry is enhancing food security, extending storage life, improving flavor and nutrient delivery, allowing pathogen/toxin/pesticide detection and serving functional foods. The silver nanoparticles have drawn the attention of researchers as they have shown potential antimicrobial effects against infectious organisms, including Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Vibria cholera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Syphillis typhus and S. aureus. Silver nanoparticles likely serve as a source of Ag+ ions, binding to membrane proteins, forming pits, causing other morphological changes, and catalyzing the generation of ROS in bacterial cells, subsequently leading to cell death through oxidative stress. A number of standard approaches by means of physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) viz. reduction in solutions, chemical and photochemical reactions in reverse micelles, thermal decomposition of silver compounds, radiation assisted, electro chemical, microwave-assisted process, and most recently using green chemistry technology. Moreover, expanding body of scientific studies suggest that silver in  nanosize, could introduce new risks to human health as silver could migrate from packaging into foods, even though preliminary results indicate that migration is expected to be minimal yet these issues require attention and demand understanding the toxic effects and the interactions of AgNPs with biological systems.

 

HIPER/P/03

EMERGING NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR STEM CELL THERAPY

Shweta Awasthi,* Kritika  Atwal, Priyanka Nagu, Shalu Rani,

Vivek Sharma & R.Guleria

Government College of Pharmacy, Rohru, Distt. Shimla Himachal Pradesh-171207

ABSTRACT: Concept of nano size was first revealed by Nobel laureate Richard Feynman and the term nanotechnology   was coined by Norio Taniguchi. It deals with materials having size range from 1-100 nm and this nanoscale imparts numerous distinctive characters to these nanoparticles. Human beings suffer from a myriad of disorders caused by biochemical or biophysical alteration leading to organ failure. For a number of these conditions, stem cells and their enormous reparative potential may be the last hope for restoring function to these failing organ or tissue systems. Stem cells have the capacity to renew themselves and differentiate into multiple cell types. In mammals, stem cells are broadly classified as embryonic stem cells and adult stem  cells. Embryonic stem cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts  and adult stem cells are found in various body tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissue etc. The interaction between nanomaterials and effective amalgamation of nanotechnology and stem cells in medical nanoscience or nanomedicine offers immense benefits to the human race. Magnetic nanoparticles are successfully used to isolate stem cells, quantum dots are used for molecular imaging and tracing of stem cells, nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, fluorescent CNTs, have been used to deliver gene or drugs into stem cells and unique nanostructures control regulation of proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, and all these advances speed up the development of stem cells toward the application in regenerative medicine. However, like any emerging field, stem cell nanotechnology also faces many challenges as the mechanism of interaction between nanomaterials and stem cells is still not clarified.

 

HIPER/P/04

Anticancer Research and Nanotechnological Advancements

Shilpa Kumari,* Priya Kaundal, Samriti Saklani, Bharti Azad,

Pankaj Sharma & Vivek Sharma

Government College of Pharmacy, Rohru, Distt. Shimla, Himachal Pradesh-171207

ABSTRACT: Cancer is a highly complex, multifactorial disease that complicates multiple cellular physiological systems. In cancer, the uncontrolled proliferation of cells and disappearance of apoptosis leads to clinical diversity and therapeutic resistance. Despite major advances in cancer biology, it remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide that necessitate development of  new and innovative technologies to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, Cancer treatment includes surgical removal, chemotherapy, radiation and hormone therapy and these options have limitations that include systemic toxicities, poor bioavailability and unfavorable pharmacokinetics. Nanotechnology a revolutionary field amalgmates chemistry, engineering, biology and medicine and has various useful applications in cancer biology, including detection of tumors, discovery of cancer biomarkers and development of novel treatments. Various nanocarriers such as liposomes, dendrimers, micelles, carbon nanotubes, nanocapsules, nanospheres, entrap therapeutic agents through covalent bonding and adsorption. These nanocarriers deliver cytotoxic agents selectively and specifically to tumor cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, thereby enhancing intracellular drug accumulation. They can specifically target cancer cells while avoiding their healthy neighbors, avoid rapid clearance from the body and be administered without toxic solvents. They have several advantages over conventional therapies, such as longer shelf life, improvement in biodistribution of cancer drugs and administration of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. Different significant events in cancer mechanisms like angiogenesis, uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumor mass are the targets for nanoparticles. Longer circulation times and easier endocytosis are the significant factors that need to be considered while choosing target moieties for effective delivery of nanoparticles. Further in diagnostics too, existing optical imaging technologies can be incorporated with sophisticated nanoparticles for high-resolution in vivo cancer imaging.

 

HIPER/P/05

Chitosan Based Targeted Nanocarriers: A Valuable Technological Advancement

Sudhanshu Shekhar,* Rishav Singh, Rajat Sharma, Harish Verma, Athar Javed and Vivek Sharma

Government College of Pharmacy, Rohru, Distt. Shimla, Himachal Pradesh-171207

ABSTRACT: The latest advances of nanotechnology has  revolutionized the biological, chemical, pharmaceutical and health sciences leading to noteworthy improvements in life expectancies. Nanoparticles have advantages like small particle size, greater drug efficacy, lower toxicity, enhanced drug solubility, stability and also targeted accumulation through enhanced permeability and retention effect. Most of the advanced nanoparticulate drug carriers have been developed by utilizing either synthetic or natural polymers or by their combination. Among the various natural polymers available, chitosan (CS) is perhaps one of the most widely used biopolymer for the preparation of nanoparticles. CS is a biodegradable polymer, made up of N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine, available in different molecular weights, viscosity and degree of deacetylation.  CS has been extensively used for delivery of small molecules, peptides, vaccines and genes via mucosal, nasal, colon, topical, oral or parenteral route. However, its chemical versatility to form derivatives (cross-links), mucoadhesive property, permeation-enhancing capability, low toxicity and ability to control the release of therapeutic agents make it an ideal candidate for fabricating oral nanoparticulate.  Beside an ideal polymer for nanoparticles, CS and its derivatives have attracted considerable attention as biomedical materials, owing to their unique biological effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, hypo-cholesterolemic, anti ulcer, anti-bacterial, anti-HIV, anti-hypertensive, anti-Alzheimer`s, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer activity and promisingly has shown antitubercular activity reported in 2018.  Thus Chitosan offers a unique dual property of having versatile therapeutic potential and an ideal candidature as a polymer owing to availability for cross-linking stability and ease of surface modification.