Estimation of Gallic Acid in Different Commercial Samples of Amruthotharam Kashayam by Using HPLC

 

Prashant S Bhokardankar1,  Balasubramani2, Manjiri  Prashant Bhokardankar3

1*Professor, Department of Rasshastra- B.K. Siddhakala Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Sangamner, India

2Manager R&D, AVT Natural Products Pvt.Ltd., Cochin, India

3Ayurved Expert and Physician, Sangamner, India

Abstract

Amruttotharam kasayam (AK) is used by a practitioners of Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) for ailments like chronic fever. Commercial AK samples were collected from the local market in Coimbatore, India and subjected to HPLC conditions using Gallic acid as a marker. Mean value of Gallic acid in commercial samples was found to be 2.93% while reference range was 2.80-4.44%.

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Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Wound Healing Active Compounds From Piper nigrum L. Berries Extract in Malaysia

 

Chin Mee Wong1*, Jing Jing Ling1, Dr. Paul M. Neilsen2,3, Dr. Siaw San Hwang3

1Department of Research and Development, Malaysian Pepper Board, Lot 1115,  Jalan Utama, Pending Industrial Area, 93450 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

2School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, Bruce Highway, 4702, North Rockhampton, QLD, Australia

3Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology (Sarawak Campus), Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

Abstract

The study aimed to further evaluate the wound healing property of P. nigrum L. using bioassay-guided fractionation method. The ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum L. was fractionated in two stages using column chromatography and preparative reversed phase C18 HPLC, respectively. Significant wound healing properties screened using the scratch wound assay was observed through the cell migration assay in fraction number three (PNE3) out of the 14 fractions, exhibiting 36.7% and 43.8% closure of wound gap within 20 hours at concentration of 0.3 and 1.0 µg/mL, respectively. Sub-fractions which were further fractionated from PNE3 showed comparatively reduced wound healing activity using the same bioassay. The sub-fractions were also compared to Piperine, a major component of P. nigrum L. and the results were comparable. This experimental study revealed that Piperine works together with other compounds in P. nigrum L. to improve wound healing as claimed by those home remedy.

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Retinal Renin-Angiotensin System Modulators: A Recent Implication for Therapy in Glaucomatous Patients

 

Wrood S. Al-khfajy1, Ahmed Hamed Jwaid2, Zakariya Al-Mashhadani1

1Mustansiriyah University, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Baghdad, Iraq

2University of Baghdad, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract

Glaucoma is the ultimate commonly acquired optic neuropathy. It signifies a public health challenge since it causes an irreversible blindness. The single known treatment of the disease is decreasing of intraocular pressure (IOP), which has been revealed to lessen glaucoma progress in a diversity of large proportions of clinical trials. Herein in this literature, we briefly define the optical Renin Angiotensin system (RAS) signaling pathway and define the most essential components, physiological actions of major angiotensin peptides, and the Renin Angiotensin system blockers. And discuss the potential implications of their modulators as a new therapeutic target in glaucoma. The literature has shown that the individual RAS modulators including, Angiotensin converting enzymes 1(ACE1) inhibitors, Angiotensin converting enzymes 2 (ACE2) Activators, Angiotensin receptor-1 (AT-1) blocker, and renin inhibitors have a potentials role in modulation of aqueous humour homodynamic, by neuroprotection of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and acceleration of the aqueous humour outflow. In conclusion, RAS modulators have an imperious role in lowering IOP, these compounds will pave the approach for prospect innovation, improvement, and publicizing of novel drugs to treat glaucoma and therefore, aid save vision for millions of people suffering with this slow progressive optic neuropathy.

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Correlaton of Primary Dengue Viral Infection With Body Mass Index (BMI)

 

Dr. Humaira Zafar1*, Dr. Kiran Tauseef2*, Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Lodhi3*

1Assoc Prof. of Pathology, Consultant Microbiologist, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad

2Assoc Prof. of Pathology, Consultant Haematologist Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad

3Professor & Head Deptt of Physiology, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad 

Abstract

The objective of this study is to assess the correlation of body mass index (BMI) with primary dengue viral infection in urban and rural population of district Rawalpindi. Descriptive Cross Sectional Comparative Study. Microbiology Department, Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Affiliated with Rawalpindi Medical College (RMC), Rawalpindi. It was carried out from 1st March 2010 to 30th September 2011. A Stratified random sampling was adopted for 240 (N) subjects residents of urban and rural areas of District Rawalpindi. Urban residents were 144(n) while rural ones were 96(n). The height in meter square and weight in kilogram (kg) were the parameters used to calculate BMI. A 3ml venous blood sample was drawn from each participant for the detection of IgG antibodies against dengue virus by 3rd generation ELISA (Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay). The prevalence of primary Dengue viral infection (DVI) for urban residents   according to the current study is 34.7% (n=50 out of the total 144 subjects).  While 19.7% prevalence of primary DVI (n=19 out of the total 96 subjects) was noted for the residents of Rural strata. The correlation of primary DVI with five categories of BMI amongst urban and rural residents is evaluated by applying chi square test. The p-Value was not found to be significant for any of the five categories of BMI either an urban or rural resident. There is no significant association of primary dengue viral infection with BMI of an individual. 

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Extraction and Evaluation of Mangifera indica Gum as a Sustained Release Polymer in Glibenclamide Matrix Tablets

 

Eman Sharafeldeen Yousif Ahmed*1, Eltayeb Suliman Elamin Abbas1, 2

1Faculty of Pharmacy, University Of Medical Science And Technology (UMST), P.O. Box 12810, Khartoum, Sudan

2Faculty of Pharmacy, Omdurman Islamic University (OIU), P.O. Box 382, Omdurman, Sudan

Abstract

The aim of this study was to extract and evaluate Mangifera indica gum as sustain release polymer in glibenclamide matrix tablets. by using formal processes the gum of MI was tested for physicochemical and phytochemical properties and the results turned out favorable. The formulations were Intended and evaluated for the various parameters like weight uniformity, friability, content percent, hardness and in-vitro dissolution studies. Moreover, all the matrix tablets formulations were within limits of the Pharmacopoeial standards. After a period of 24 h. in-vitro release studies, the findings of F1, F2, F3 and were 10.89%, 10.69%, 9.99% and 9.55%, respectively. the best sustained drug release among those formulations (of 10.89%) was been achieved with formulation F1 at the end of 24 h, which indicated that the drug release from the matrix tablets was dependent on gum concentration, also MI gum give effective results even with very low concentrations (below 1%).

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Conference Proceeding of National Seminar on Current Status and Future Scope for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Drug Discovery and Development

 

Organized by Himachal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (HIPER), Nadaun Himachal Pradesh, India from 23-24 February 2018

Abstract

IInd National Seminaron “Current Status and Future Scope for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Drug Discovery and Development” was organized by Himachal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (HIPER), Nadaun Himachal Pradesh, India from23-24 February 2018. The seminar was sponsored by Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi and Himachal Pradesh Technical University, Hamirpur. The conference invites all the participants across the various states of India to attend and share their insights and convey recent developments in the field of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology seems to have gained a widespread interest in the recent years. This conference had a variety of keynote lectures, Oral Presentation, Poster Presentations, Scientific Quiz Competition and discussions with renowned speakers, Pharma and medical Professionals, healthcare Professionals and leading specialists involved in the field of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

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Prevalence and Pattern of Hypertension in Diabetic Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital

 

Anju Jacob1*, Abubaker Siddiq2

1*Department of Pharmacy Practice, SJM College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, 577502, Karnataka, India

2Department of Pharmacology, SJM College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, 577502, Karnataka, India

Abstract

India presiding the world with largest number of diabetic patients and is often referred to as the diabetes metropolis of the world. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a quotidian cause of hypertension, frightfully if glycaemic control is poor. The present study was planned to ascertain the prevalence, pattern of diabetic hypertension and also the use of antihypertensive agents. Prospective observational study was perpetrate at Basaveshwara Medical College & Research Center, Chitradurga on 134 diabetic patients and were disguised for hypertension (HTN). The congregated data were analysed by using SPSS software version 19. The work finished with the outcomes of that, the most of the diabetic patients were having comorbid condition of hypertension. Most universal pattern was stage I HTN. Calcium channel blockers were regularly used to treat the condition.

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Formulation and Evaluation of Medicated Derma Sticks of Ficus racemosa For Management of Infectious Skin Diseases

 

M.G.K. Murthy*, K. Purushotham Rao

H.K.E. Society’s College of Pharmacy, M.R. Medical College, Gulbarga-585 105, Karnataka, India

Abstract

External infections involving the skin are the most frequent complications affecting humans and animals. Medicinal plants play great roles in the treatment of infectious skin diseases. The present study was aimed to formulate and evaluate medicated sticks of Ficus racemosa extract.The petroleum ether and ethanol (70%) extracts were prepared. Medicated derma sticks of Ficus racemosa extract were prepared by heating and congealing and evaluated for thickness, length and weight. The findings of weight, thickness and length of medicated derma sticks of Ficus racemosa were found to 2.3±0.18 gm, 5.9±0.32 mm and 3.8±0.11 cm, respectively. The medicated derma sticks of Ficus racemosa were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans, and further stability studies was performed. The zones of inhibition of medicated derma sticks ofFicus racemosa against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans were 20.17±0.31, 18.24±0.82 and 29.12±0.65 mm, respectively. The values of zones of inhibition were near to value of pure drug. The stability study of medicated derma sticks ofFicus racemosa exhibited that the formulations were safe to use.

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Protective Role  of Oral Bupropion in Prevention of Cataract Induced Experimentally  in Rabbits

 

Adeeb A. Al-Zubaidy1, Ahmed Majeed Rasheed2, Bahaa A. Abdul Hussien3, Dalia Abd Al-Kader Shakoor4*

1Al-Nahrain University, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Baghdad, Iraq

2Al-Nahrain University, College of medicine, Department of Surgery, Baghdad, Iraq

3Al-Qadesyiah University, College of Medical Vet., Department of Pharmacology,  Al-Qadesyiah, Iraq

4Al-Mustansiriyah University, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract

Cataract is one of the chief causes of blindness and visual impairment in the elderly people throughout the developing world. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective role of oral bupropion against selenite induced cataract in rabbits. Adult rabbits were used in the present study. Groups of study were: Apparently normal group, Cataract group and oral bupropion group. Cataract induction was done by a single intravitreal injection of 0.1 ml (0.01% w/v) of sodium selenite solution in the right eyes. Bupropion (50 mg/kg two times daily) was given for five days before intravitreal injection sodium selenite solution and 21 days after. The parameters were: Lens opacity, pupil diameter, light reflex, corneal sensation, conjunctival redness, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in aqueous humor of rabbit eyes. Oral bupropion resulted in high significant protection from cataract development and there was no change in pupil diameter, positive light reflex, positive corneal sensation, no conjunctival redness, decreased level of MDA and increased level of GSH.

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Alterations in Zeta Potential and Osmotic Fragility of Red Blood Cells in Hyperglycemic Conditions

 

Swati S. Gaikwad*, Megha N. Karemore, Jasmine G. Avari

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, R. T. M. Nagpur University, Mahatma Jyotiba Fuley Educational Campus, Amravati Road, Nagpur, 440033, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

The zeta potential is an electrokinetic property of red blood cells surface and in different disease conditions this property of the erythrocytes varies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the alteration in zeta potential, lipid peroxidation and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in hyperglycemic conditions.  The zeta potential of the RBCs was measured using Zeta meter System 4.0. Lipid peroxidation, an indicator of tissue injury induced by reactive oxygen species was measured by the thiobarbituric acid assay (TBA). The percent haemolysis in terms of osmotic fragility was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (JASCO).The mean erythrocytic ZP of the control group was found to be 22.13±0.2789 mV whereas, erythrocytic ZP for diabetes mellitus patients was found to be 8.559±0.4864 mV. Similarly, when erythrocytic ZP of control pregnant women was measured, and it was found to be 21.07±0.3393 mV which were slightly lower than a control group. Mean ZP of GDM patients was found to be 10.12±0.2294 mV which was significantly less than both control group and pregnant control group. Variations in zeta potential values were accompanied by increased osmotic fragility of RBCs. It was also observed from determination of lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes, that there was formation of higher concentration of malondialdehyde with the erythrocytes of hyperglycemic patients compared to control group.The findings suggest that the zeta potential value of erythrocytes can act as a key indicator for demonstration of increased oxidative stress.

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Physicochemical, Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Aegle marmelos

 

Asha Gupta1*, Tessy Thomas1, Shagufta Khan2

1Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Sehore (MP)- 466001, India

2GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India

Abstract

The present study was aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assessment of Aegle marmelos fruits extract. The powder was evaluated for loss on drying, alcohol extractive value and aqueous extractive value. The petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extract were prepared by soxhlet extraction process. The phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed, and antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against various strains was done. The loss on drying, alcohol and aqueous extractive values were 3.9%, 14.2% and 17.6%, respectively. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, saponins, tannins phenols in ethanol extracts. The ethanol extracts demonstrated moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against S. epidermis, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. Thus in future, extract of Aegle marmelos may be beneficial for another several species of microbes.

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Attenuation of Anxiety Behaviours by Xylopic Acid in Mice and Zebrafish Models of Anxiety Disorder 

 

Robert Peter Biney1*, Charles Kwaku Benneh2, James Oppong Kyekyeku3, Elvis Ofori Ameyaw4,  Eric Boakye-Gyasi5, Eric Woode5 

1Department of Pharmacology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

4Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

5Department of Pharmacology Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

Abstract

Anxiety disorders affect people worldwide with disabling symptoms. Xylopic acid, an ent-kaurane diterpene, exerts central nervous system depressant, opioid receptor-mediated analgesic and anti-neuropathic pain effects. Agents acting as CNS depressants can ameliorate anxiety disorders hence, this study evaluates the anxiolytic potential of xylopic acid in mice and zebrafish. Xylopic acid was given orally at 3, 10 or 30 mg kg-1 to mice or 3, 10 or 30 µM to zebrafish.  Anxiety was assessed in mice using open field (OFT), novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH), and elevated plus maze (EPM) models and in zebrafish using novel tank (NT) and scototaxis (ST) models. Additionally, xylopic acid’s activity on anxiety induced by alcohol withdrawal was also evaluated. Xylopic acid at doses 3-30 mg kg-1 reduced latency to feeding in mice in the hyponeophagia test for anxiety and also significantly reduced thigmotaxis in the OFT at 30 mg kg-1 (P<0.001). All mice given xylopic acid significantly spent more time in the open arms of the EPM (P<0.001). At 10 µM xylopic acid-treated zebrafish exhibited significant (P<0.001) reduction in time spent at bottom of novel tank but it did not reduce scototaxis in the light-dark test. Furthermore, xylopic acid attenuated increased bottom dwelling induced by alcohol withdrawal in zebrafish. The doses of xylopic acid used did not impair locomotion in the chimney test for mice. These findings indicate anxiolytic-like properties of xylopic acid in mice and zebrafish models of anxiety disorder.

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C-MYC and BCL2 Expression in Normal Tissue Around Proliferative Breast Conditions in Relation to ER, PR in a Sample of Iraqi Women

 

Ahmed F. Hameed1*, Mustafa M. Ibraheem2, Basim Sh. Ahmed3

1Assist. Lecturer, M.Sc. Anatomy; Histology & Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964, Iraq

2Assist. Prof., Histology & Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964 Iraq

3Assist. Prof, Department of Pathology & Forensic Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964, Iraq

Abstract

Breast cancer describes several subtypes of cancer of the breast that differs in clinical presentation, which reveals different gene expression and different molecular characteristics. As new advances in diagnosis and treatment emerge with an already prevalent but still curable disease, more research is required for such advanced diagnostic and prognostic parameters. A Total of 120 tissue samples were included in the current prospective study. Normal breast tissue taken from reduction mammoplasty (40 samples), normal tissue around a breast  primary ductal carcinoma (40 samples) and normal tissue around Fibroadenoma (40 samples) were enrolled in the study. Tissue samples were immunohistochemically stained for four markers: BCL2, C-MYC, ER & PR and the score results of the markers were statistically examined and correlated. There was a highly statistically significant expression of BCL2 & C-MYC in normal tissue around breast carcinoma more than other proliferative conditions, with high significant correlation with ER, PR. Though there was overexpression of C-MYC &BCL2 in all three proliferative conditions, it was more pronounced in breast cancer.

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Design and Evaluation of Medicated Derma Sticks of Azadirachta indica For Antimicrobial Activity

 

M.G.K. Murthy*, K. Purushotham Rao

H.K.E. Society’s College of Pharmacy, M.R. Medical College, Gulbarga-585 105, Karnataka, India

Abstract

Topical skin infections commonly occur in person in worldwide level. Plants reported to possess activity or used in traditional systems of medicine for prevention and treatment of skin disorders. Hence, present study was aimed to design and evaluate medicated sticks of Azadirachta indicaextractwhich is very well known for the antibacterial and antifungal activity. The petroleum ether and ethanol (70%) extracts were prepared. Medicated derma sticks of Azadirachta indicaextract were prepared by heating and congealing and evaluated for thickness, length and weight. The medicated derma sticks of Azadirachta indica were screened for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans, and further stability studies was performed. The prepared medicated derma sticks ofAzadirachta indica obtained were of uniform length, thickness and weight respectively. The zones of inhibition of medicated derma sticks ofAzadirachta indica against all the microorganisms were nearer to pure drugs. The stability study of medicated derma sticks ofAzadirachta indica exhibited that the formulations were safe to use in tropical application.

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Formulation and Evaluation of Besifloxacin Loaded In Situ Gel For Ophthalmic Delivery

 

Shivani Kala, Prachi Gurudiwan*, Divya Juyal

Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy and Research Atakfarm, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Abstract

The aim of study was to develop in situ gel of Besifloxacin by using blend polymer of sodium alginate, ethylcellulose and Xanthan gum to increase the pre-corneal residence time and better bioavailability of drug. In situ ocular gels of Besifloxacin (F1 to F6) were prepared by using polymers xanthan gum, Ethyl cellulose and sodium alginate in different ratio. The formulations F1 to F6 were evaluated for Clarity, visual appearance, pH, gelling capacity, drug content, assessment of drug release and ocular irritancy. The F1 to F6 were transparent and clear, and possessed a satisfactory gelling capacity. The drug content capacity for F1 to F6 ranged between 96.24% to 98.63%. The in vitro releases of drug from in situ ocular gel demonstrated that F3 (98.67%) has maximum drug release for 8 hrs compared to other formulations, and showed sustained release. The ocular irritancy study of F3 formulation showed non-irritant and safe to use. The studies suggested that prepared in situ ophthalmic gel of Besifloxacin will be an alternative for conventional eye drops and valuable alternative to counter the precorneal loss.       

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