C-MYC and BCL2 Expression in Normal Tissue Around Proliferative Breast Conditions in Relation to ER, PR in a Sample of Iraqi Women

 

Ahmed F. Hameed1*, Mustafa M. Ibraheem2, Basim Sh. Ahmed3

1Assist. Lecturer, M.Sc. Anatomy; Histology & Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964, Iraq

2Assist. Prof., Histology & Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964 Iraq

3Assist. Prof, Department of Pathology & Forensic Medicine, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-00964, Iraq

Abstract

Breast cancer describes several subtypes of cancer of the breast that differs in clinical presentation, which reveals different gene expression and different molecular characteristics. As new advances in diagnosis and treatment emerge with an already prevalent but still curable disease, more research is required for such advanced diagnostic and prognostic parameters. A Total of 120 tissue samples were included in the current prospective study. Normal breast tissue taken from reduction mammoplasty (40 samples), normal tissue around a breast  primary ductal carcinoma (40 samples) and normal tissue around Fibroadenoma (40 samples) were enrolled in the study. Tissue samples were immunohistochemically stained for four markers: BCL2, C-MYC, ER & PR and the score results of the markers were statistically examined and correlated. There was a highly statistically significant expression of BCL2 & C-MYC in normal tissue around breast carcinoma more than other proliferative conditions, with high significant correlation with ER, PR. Though there was overexpression of C-MYC &BCL2 in all three proliferative conditions, it was more pronounced in breast cancer.

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Regeneration of Aegle marmelos (l.) Through Enhanced Axillary Branching from Cotyledenory Node

 

Asha Gupta1*, Tessy Thomas1, Shagufta Khan2 

1Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Bhopal (MP)- 462022, India

3GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India

Abstract

A complete protocol is standardized for in vitro micropropogation of Aegle marmelos for the first time using cotyledonary nodes derived through invitro raised seedlings. Higher percentage of direct multiple shoots were regenerated from cotyledonary nodal segments through forced axillary branching. The cotyledonary nodes of invitro raised seedlings were used as explants for shoot formation on MS Medium supplemented with Cytokinins (BAP) and Auxins (NAA), either alone or in combinations. Maximum (80%) shoots having shoot length of 2-3 cm were achieved on MS medium fortified with BAP (1.0 mg/l) and NAA (0.5mg/l). By repeating sub culturing of the cotyledonary node on shoot multiplication medium followed by shoot elongation medium after each harvest of the newly formed shoots. Thus, from a single cotyledonary node, about 20-25 shoots were obtained. Shoots formed in vitro were best rooted on MS medium supplemented with 1.0-2.0 mg/l Napthalene acetic acid(NAA).

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Antioxidant, Anti-alzheimer and Anti-parkinson activity of Artemisia nilagirica Leaves with Flowering Tops

 

Pradeep Pal1*, A.K. Ghosh2

1Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical Studies, Ujjain (M.P.)-456664, India

2IFTM University, Muradabad (U.P.)- 244102, India

Abstract

Presently peoples are loaded with stress and leads to various neurodegenerative disorders like anxiety, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant, anti-alzheimer and anti-parkinson activity of Artemisia nilagirica leaves with flowering tops extracts. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Artemisia nilagirica leaves with flowering tops were processed for evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity namely hydrogen-donating activity, superoxide scavenging activity, total polyphenol content, total flavonol content and reducing power assay. The object recognition and Y-Maze test were used to evaluate the anti-alzheimer`s activity of extract. The different parameters like catalepsy (bar test), locomotor activity (actophotometer test), and muscle activity (rotarod test) were measured in all animals for anti-parkinson activity. The findings of in vitro antioxidant study demonstrated that ethanol extract has maximum antioxidant properties compared to aqueous extract. Hence the ethanol extract of Artemisia nilagirica was selected for screening of anti-alzheimer and anti-parkinson activity. The administration of ethanol extract of Artemisia nilgirica exhibited significant anti-alzheimer and anti-parkinson activity. The findings of anti-alzheimer and anti-parkinson activity ethanol extract of Artemisia nilagirica demonstrated that this plant have neuroprotective properties.

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Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Floating-Bioadhesive Tablet Formulated with Okra Gum as Multifunctional Polymer

 

*Alalor CA1, Uhumwangho MU2, Iwuagwu MA2

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, Abraka, 320001, Nigeria2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001,    Nigeria

Abstract

Floating drug delivery systems and bioadhesive drug delivery systems are gastroretentive systems for increasing gastric residence time to obtain improved drug bioavailability. This study was to evaluate the floating and bioadhesive characteristics of Ciprofloxacin tablets formulated with Abelmoschus esculentus gum (okra gum).Okra gum was extracted and granules were prepared using the extracted Okra gum as well as sodium alginate and HPMC at concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10 % w/w. Ciprofloxacin floating bioadhesive (CFB) tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, in vitro buoyancy test, ex vivo bioadhesion test and drug release profiles. The floating lag time (FLT) and total floating time (TFT) for CFB tablets formulated with 10% w/w okra gum were 5.7 minutes and 8 hours respectively while the bioadhesive force was 1.324 N. Formulations of ciprofloxacin tablets containing admixtures of okra gum and sodium alginate or HPMC resulted in significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the floating lag times (≤ 3.1 minutes) and significant increase (p < 0.05) in total floating times (> 12 h). The bioadhesive force for CFB tablets containing admixtures of okra gum and sodium alginate or HPMC gave higher values in the range of 1.766 – 2.207 N. The in vitro release profiles for CFB tablets formulated with okra gum alone did not show sustained release below 10 % w/w. Batches FB10 and FB11 containing admixtures showed sustained release with maximum release of 86% at maximum time of 9 h. The dissolution profiles of tablets from batches F10 and F11 compared favourably with the profile for the commercial brand of floating ciprofloxacin tablet, MF. From the study Okra gum has shown to possess good floating and bioadhesive properties and may be utilized in the formulation gastro-retentive dosage form of ciprofloxacin which can possibly be harnessed as a targeted site-specific delivery system in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in gastric ulcer disease as well as in the treatment of Salmonella typhi induced enteric fever.

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Study and Reporting of Adverse Drug Reaction Patterns Among Organ Transplant Patients Receiving Tacrolimus Therapy in a Real World Post-Marketing Experience

 

Shobharam Sahu*1, Poonam Rishishwar1, Chhaya Rathod2

1Faculty of Pharmaceutical science,Sri Venkateshwara University, Gajraula, UP, India

2Rajiv Gandhi college of Pharmacy, Nautanwa-Maharajganj, UP, India

Abstract

With the availability of many immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of solid organ transplantation increase to a life span of patients who is receiving tacrolimus separately for End Stage of liver, heart and lung, kidney. But after all success of solid organ transplantation is purely dependent on proper course of immunosuppressive therapy. Tacrolimus is lactones antibiotic isolated from the fermentation of streptomyces tstkubaeis. This calcineurin inhibitor widely used for its immunosuppressive properties to increase patient survival and prevent graft function, organ rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in transplant patients suppresses to enzyme for the growth of B cells and T cells.  It was first approved for use to prevent graft rejection in 1994 for liver transplantation and in 1997 for kidney transplantation. The outcomes of this drug have varied due to differences in induction and maintenance therapy, drug dosing and monitoring. The aim of this study of an assessment and reporting of adverse drug reaction was to analyze the case reports of literature critically, conducted to monitor and evaluated the adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of immunosuppressive drug regimens, its causality, severity in therapy which is used various organ transplant patients and to document the pharmacotherapeutic actions taken for its management.

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Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa Oil

 

Arif Ahmad Rather*, Kirti Jain

Department of Botany, Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazeer, Bhopal (M.P.), 462001, India

Abstract

Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a consequence of accumulation of free radicals in the body. The various researches are going on globally directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. We planned to investigate the preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oil. The yield of oil of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa were 21.5% and 27.3%, respectively. Phytochemical screening was performed by using standard methods. The in vitro antioxidant study was done for Nigella sativaand Allium cepa oil by using hydrogen-donating activity, superoxide scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and reducing power assay. The result of phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, steroids and fats in Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oil. The findings of DPPH, superoxide, reducing power and H2O2 radical scavenging activity exhibited that the oil of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa showed moderately to strongly free radical scavenging activity. Hence Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oil can play a major role in alleviating the number of oxidative stress by reducing the oxidative damage to cellular component caused by Reactive oxygen species (ROS).

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Multi-particulate Drug Delivery  Systems of Fenofibric Acid: Optimization of Formulation Using Statistical Experimental Design

 

Bala Vishnu Priya Mukkala1*, Murthy T.E.G.K2, Prameela Rani Avula3 

1Formulation research and development, RA Chem Pharma Ltd, Hyderabad-500076, Telangana, India

2Department of pharmaceutics, Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, Guntur-522101, Andhra Pradesh, India

3Department of pharmaceutics, Acharya Nagajuna University, Guntur-522510, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract

The objective of the present research work was to develop a multi-particulate modified release system of Fenofibric acid using Wurster (Bottom spray fluid bed coating) process. Impact of various formulation variables was assessed by using statistical interpretation such as ANOVA. A 33 (three factor, three level) face centered central composite design was employed to study the effect of independent variables (concentration of ER Polymer, plasticizer and pore former), on dependent variables (drug release at 2.5th h & 6th h). Optimization of the formulation variables was done by fitting experimental data to the software program (Design Expert). The design space for formulation variables was developed. Fabricated pellets were characterized for various physico-chemical parameters. In vitro release data of the optimized formulation was fitted into various kinetic equations. The optimized formulation showed a desired  drug release at both 2.5th h and 6th h as 17.5 ± 2.28% & 87.1 ± 0.75% respectively. The drug release from the capsules followed first order kinetics and controlled by non fickian transport. The information acquired in this study recommends that the multi-particulates of Fenofibric acid can be effectively intended to give a delayed  release of Fenofibric acid and thus enhanced bioavailability.

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Evaluation of the Mycochemical and Proximate Composition of Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus VAR Florida, (MONT) Singer. and P. pulmonarius (FR) QUEL) Grown on Bark of Gmelina arborea Roxb.,Straw of Saccharum officinarum L.and Pods of Delonix regia (BOJ. Ex Hook.) RAF

 

Okwulehie I. C.1, Oti, V. O.1, Ikechukwu G. C.2*

1Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P. M. B 7267 Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P. M. B 7267 Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria

Abstract

Mushrooms are fungal fruit-bodies which have over successive years served as suitable source of protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. The fruit-bodies derive their nutrients from varieties of substrates including agro-wastes. This study was conducted to evaluate the potentials of using the pods of Delonix regia, straws of Saccharum officinarum and bark of Gmelina arborea in the production of nutritionally-rich edible oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius. The experiment was carried out in three replicates in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. The results of the investigations were analysed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the means were separated using Least Significant Different (LSD) tool. The result of the myco-chemical analysis shows that fruit-bodies of P. ostreatus var florida, produced in Saccharum officinale straw, yielded the higher alkaloids (3.93±0.010g/100g) than those produced in Gmelina+Delonix (3.84±0.025g/100g) and S. officinale+D. regia , (3.77±0.03g/100g). The trend was the same with Flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phenols from S. officinale, G. aborea + D. regia and S. officinale + D. regia, and D. regia. Pleurotus pulmonarius from the substrates contained low concentration of alkaloids but higher concentration of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phenols. Generally the substrates yielded fruit-bodies that are rich in protein. However those from S. officinale + D. regia appeared richer in protein (28.44±0.03g/100g). The substrates showed encouraging potentials for use in the production of nutritionally-rich edible P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius, with S. officinale + D. regia standing out as a more likely preferred substrates. There appears to be a synergism between the substrates of S. officinale and D. regia, since the mean of their individual performance is less than their performance when combined.

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Study on Antimicrobial Potential of Selected Non-antibiotics and its Interaction with Conventional Antibiotics

 

Michael Hadera1, Selam Mehari1, N. Saleem Basha1*, Nebyu D. Amha1 and Yacob Berhane2

1Pharmaceutics Unit, School of Pharmacy, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, P.O Box.8566, Eritrea, North East Africa

2Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Professions, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, P.O Box.8566, Eritrea,     North East Africa

Abstract

The escalating levels of antimicrobial drug resistance render it indispensable to explore newer drugs with lesser degrees of toxicity and with fewer chances of developing resistance. Various studies on the discovery of novel antimicrobials have found different degrees of antimicrobial activity in commonly used medicines with diverse pharmacological actions i.e., non-antibiotics. The present work aimed to describe qualitatively and quantitatively in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs i.e., Acetyl salicylic acid, Methyldopa, Propranolol and Fluoxetine alone and in combination with three conventional antimicrobial drugs i.e., Ciprofloxacin, Benzyl penicillin, and Fluconazole against three standard test microorganisms, i.e., E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. Agar well diffusion method was used for testing antimicrobial sensitivity, while the drug interaction was estimated using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index) obtained from checkerboard broth dilution method.  All the four non-antibiotics tested for antimicrobial activity showed activity against at least one tested microorganism, whereas fluoxetine showed antimicrobial activity against all tested organisms. Combined effect of fluconazole + fluoxetine and fluconazole + propranolol against C. albicans showed synergistic activity based on the FICindex value obtained i.e., 0.25 and 0.1875, respectively. Based on the results, study suggests that fluoxetine among the other non-antibiotics has a potential for being developed into an effective antimicrobial agent. However, the study needs to be extended in the future to determine the in vivo antimicrobial activity.

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Effect of Extraction Solvents on Bioactive Compounds and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Varieties of Garcinia kola (heckel)OBOWO 02 (soft and less bitter) and OBOWO 03 (Hard and Very Bitter)

 

Okwulehie I. C*., Alozie V. C., Ikechukwu G. C., Nwokeocha O. W. 

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB-7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the extracts obtained using the different solvents - water, acetone, methanol and ethanol on the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of Garcinia kola (Obowo 20 and 03). The following 4 bacterial isolates were used for the investigation of the antimicrobialactivities and and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis of each of the extract indicated the presence of tannin, saponin, flavonoid, Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), alkaloid, carotenoid, anthocyanin and phenol. The extracts exhibited significant inhibitory action against S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosaand E. coli. The result revealed that methanol extract exerted the highest significant activities (P> 0.05) against all the tested organisms at the various treatment regimes with S. aureus having a wider zone of inhibition followed by E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhiwith the lowest inhibitory zones. The MIC of the methanol extract against the organisms was 12.5, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extract showed the least significant activity against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi with MICs of 25, 25, 25 and 50mg/ml respectively.

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Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Thespesia populnea Bark Extracts

 

Manisha Kothari*, D. K. Jain

SSL Jain PG College, Vidisha (MP)-464001, India

Abstract

The leaves and bark of Thespesia populnea are used for the treatment of fracture wounds and as an antiinflammatory poultice applied to ulcers and boils, as a folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the wound healing activity and phytochemical screening of Thespesia populnea barks extract. The petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extract prepared. All the extracts were screened for preliminary phytochemical to determine the nature of secondary metabolite present in bark. Excision wound models were used to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract. The 250 mg and 500 mg of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extract were individually incorporated with 100 g of Carbopol 940 to get 2.5% and 5% (w/w) gel. Preliminary phytochemical investigations of the extracts of barks of Thespesia populnearevealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, glycosides, fats and carbohydrates. The order of wound healing activity of various extract were Ethanol extract > Aqueous extract > Acetone extract > Chloroform extract > Petroleum ether extract. The ethanol extracts of exhibited maximum wound healing activity compared to other extracts. The findings could justify, at least partially, the inclusion of this plant in the management of wound healing in folk medicine.

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Evaluation of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Tridax procumbens Extract

 

Dr Pooja Singh1*, Dr Kirti Jain2, Dr Swati Khare3, Dr Padma Shrivastav1

1Govt. PG College, BHEL, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazir, Bhopal (M.P.)-462001, India

3Maharani Laxmibai, Govt Girls PG Autonomous College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

Abstract

Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The polyphenol and flavonoids are used for the treatment of various diseases triggered by oxidative stress. Tridax procumbens have been used as indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments. In the present study, it was planned to investigate the phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves. The ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Tridax procumbens leaves were prepared and performed its phytochemical analysis. The in vitro antioxidant activity namely DPPH, total polyphenol content, total flavonol content and reducing power assay were performed. The qualitative chemical test exhibited the presence of alkaloids, polyphenol, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponin and glycoside in ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Tridax procumbens. The findings of in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated that ethanol extracts expressed higher antioxidant activity compared to methanol and aqueous extract. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of Tridax procumbens

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Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical Standardization of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa Seeds

 

Arif Ahmad Rather*, Kirti Jain

Department of Botany, Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazeer, Bhopal (M.P.)-462001, India

Abstract

Standardization is the code of conduct in order to ensure the proper identification, authentication and also for the standardization of crude herbal drugs. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. Towards authentication and quality assurance of medicinal plants, pharmacognostic, physicochemical studies of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa seeds were performed. The macroscopic and physicochemical parameters like ash value, loss on drying, foaming index, swelling index, extractive values and fluorescence analysis were carried out as per WHO guidelines. The findings of Pharmacognostic and physicochemical studies can be used as markers in the identification and standardization of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa seeds as a herbal remedy and also towards monograph development on the plant. Further it assists in validating this raw material for use in herbal formulations in the upcoming era.

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Glimpses of FDA Approved Anti - Neoplastic Drugs 2016 

 

K. Sai Samhitha, C. Vinodhini*,  K. Chitra

Department of Quality Assurance, Facultyof Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra University, ChennaI 600116, India

Abstract

The article is all about the anti – cancer drugs approved by the FDA for treating different forms of cancers. Article gives complete idea about each drug which was approved by FDA, which includes the use, route of administration, the dosing & the side effects. The article also gives brief about the pharmacokinetics & pharmacodynamics of the drugs.

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Risk Factors, Management and Other Correlates of Peptic Ulcer Disease in a University Community in South-South Nigeria

 

Eniojukan JF1*, Okonkwo OC2 and Adje UD2

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Niger Delta University, PMB 071, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Delta State University, PMB 1, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Abstract

The most common causes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) are Helicobacter pylori infection and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).Treatment choices include standard triple therapy. This study evaluated the patterns of prevalence, life-style risk factors and correlates of management of PUD among Staff and Students of Delta State University, Abraka Campus, Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was initiated among 450 willing staff and student respondents. A total of 126 respondents that had been diagnosed for PUD were further evaluated for prevalence and patterns, confounding life-style factors, drug therapy and other correlates of PUD management by using self-designed, pre-tested questionnaires that addressed the objectives of the study. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version16.0 (SPSS Inc. Chicago Illinois). Duodenal Ulcer (DU) had a higher prevalence than Gastric Ulcer (GU) in a ratio of 1.5:1. The prevalence of GU was higher among Staff, Males and those older than 35 years; DU had a higher prevalence among the Students, Females and 16-35 yrs age group. The greatest life-style risk factors identified were consumption of NSAIDs, Tobacco and Alcohol. Regarding drug treatment, over 90% of drugs prescribed were antibiotics; nearly all respondents claimed to experience side-effects which included Diarrhea, Abdominal Pain and Headache; nearly all respondents often adhered to instructions to avoid Alcohol. In this population, PUD prevalence and pattern was structured along gender and age. There were issues with life-styles which could have contributed to the pathophysiology of PUD. Patients experienced some side-effects that affected adherence to instructions. Management seemed appropriate with the use of triple therapies. However, there is still a dire need for strategic health education on PUD risk factors and self-care practices.

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Evaluation of Calcium Concentration of Medicinal Plants Incorporating in Dashmool by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

 

Yogita Choudhary, Abhishek Saxena*, Yatendra Kumar, Sagar Kumar, Vijay Pratap 

Department of Pharmacy, Brahmanand Group of Institution, Bulanshahr (UP), India

Abstract

Ayurveda is one of the traditional medicinal systems of Indian. The philosophy behind Ayurveda is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Dashmool is Ayurvedic preparation containing various parts of ten medicinal plants. The medicinal plants used in Dashmool are collected from different parts of India and variation in elemental concentration has been observed. The present study was aimed to determine the level of Calcium of Aegle marmelos (root), Clerodendrum phlomidis (root), Desmodium gangeticum (root), Stereospermum suavaveolens (Stem bark), Oroxylum indicum (Stem bark), Gmelina arborea (stem bark), Solanum xanthocarpum (root), Solanum indicum (stem bark), Tribulus terrestris (root) and Uraria picta (leaves) used for the formulation of Dashmool by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The findings demonstrated that the concentration of Calcium in selected medicinal plants was under the prescribed limits. Such information could be helpful in standardization of Dashmool and imparts better therapeutic efficacy.     

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High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantification of Gallic Acid in Simhanada Guggulu

 

Shilpa Jain1, Neha Jain2*, Mohan Lal Kori2, Abhishek Kumar Jain3

1Sagar Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Sagar, 470002, M. P., India,

2Vedica College of B. Pharmacy, R.K.D.F. University, Bhopal, 462037, M.P., India

3Sagar Institute of Research Technology & Science – Pharmacy, Bhopal, 462037, M.P., India

Abstract

Marker compounds quantification with new analytical tools and methods is necessary for establishing the authenticity and usage of Ayurvedic or herbal formulations. Simhanada guggulu or guggul is one of the supportive Ayurvedic medicines for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and used in various disorders in Ayurveda such as limping, anemia, gout, disease of skin, cough, abdominal lump, pain digestive impairment. Simhanada guggulu is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation made by some selected herbs. The rejuvenating and tonic properties of ‘Simhanada guggulu’ are considered majorly due to their antioxidant principles, which in turn is due to the presence of phenolic compounds. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for quantitative determination of the gallic acid in ‘Simhanada guggulu’. The acidic mobile phase used in RP18 column which enabled efficient separation of gallic acid. A binary gradient with mobile phase containing solvent A (Acetonitrile) and solvent B (water: 0.3% O-Phosphoric Acid) was used for analysis. Elution was carried out at flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Pure gallic acid Rt was found to be 5.29 min and peak with same Rt was also observed in prepared formulation. Gallic acid content of prepared formulation was found to be 2.28 %. The developed HPLC-UV method is simple, rapid and help as tool for the standardization of Simhanda guggulu.

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