Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Sinapis alba and Brassica nigra Leaves Against Selected Microorganisms 

 

Hawaz Weldu1*,Abel Mehari2, Lia Alem3

 1Haz-haz Zonal Referral Hospital Asmara-P.O.Box-9098, Eritrea

2Eritrea Pharmacological, product and supplies, Asmara-P.O.Box-1689, Eritrea

3National TB reference Laboratory, National Health Laboratory, Asmara-P.O. Box-1686, Eritrea

Abstract

Many traditional practitioners in developing countries use the herbaceous plant to treat a different type of microbial infection. Eritrea is one of the developing countries where most of their communities are dependent on herbal medicines for the treatment of infectious disease. However, this malpractice follows incorrect dosage, administration, formulation, frequency and other non-scientific methods with the inevitable negative effect of the practice which makes it inconvenient for the clients who seek treatment. Therefore the current study was carried out to get a scientific evidence of antimicrobial activity of two selected important herbal plants. Active part from leaves of Sinapis alba and Brassica nigra were extracted by continuous hot extraction (Soxhlet technique), and different concentrations were obtained by ethanol, N-hexane, aqueous and DMSO solvents. Microorganisms (Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus aureus from bacterial strains and Candida Albicans from fungal strain) were selected for testing antimicrobial activity of the plants. Then the extracted solutions were diffused to selected standard organisms inoculated in Muller Hinton Agar using well diffusion technique. Ethanol extracts of S. Alba of 2500mg/ml dissolved in DMSO concentration against E. coli have shown a significant activity with inhibition zones of 30mm. This plant in the same concentration also had a considerable effect against S. aureus and C. Albcaians with a prompting result of 28mm and 25mm zones of inhibition respectively which is greater than the positive control. Moreover, this plant showed almost an equal activity at 1000mg and 250mg which are 20mm and 13mm respectively for  C. Albicans, 26mm and 23mm for S. aureus and for E. coli 25mm and17mm. N-hexane extracts of the same plant also showed a remarkable activity at concentrations of 1000mg, 250mg and 50mg, where the zones of inhibition against S. aureus were 18mm, 20mm and 25mm respectively. Ethanol-extract of this plant diluted in ethanol also showed activity at the lowest concentration. Generally, both plants extracted using N-hexane and Ethanol extracts gave a remarkable activity against all the selected micro-organisms.

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Comparative Analysis of Piperine in Wild Plant and Callus of Piper longum by HPLC Method

 

Shiffat Siddique1*, Tessay Thomas2, Shagufta Khan3

1Chandra Shekhar Azad, Govt. P. G. Nodal College, Sehore (M.P.)- 466001, India

2Govt. P. G. College, Guna (M.P.)- 473001, India

3Grow Tips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India

Abstract

Piperine is chief bio-molecular active compound of Piper longum, exhibited various pharmacological activities.  In addition it improves the bioavailability of other nutritive substances. The aim of the study was to induce callus from Piper longum, and compared the quantification of piperine in callus and wild grown Piper longum.The callus were produced by transferring the sterile leaves on MS medium containing different concentration of cytokinins like 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), 1.0 mg/l KN (kinetin) with auxins like 0.5 - 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D (2 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). The petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Piper longum plant and callus were prepared. The content of piperine in plant extract and callus extract were performed by HPLC. The phytochemical study uncovered the nearness of different secondary metabolites in various extract of plant. The HPLC chromatogram displayed that content of piperine present in callus extract was higher compared to field grown plants.

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Correlation Between Biochemical and Immunological Alterations with Updated Therapies in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review Article

 

Bahir Abdul Razzaq Mshimesh1, Basma Talib Al-Sudani2, Suzan Yousif Jasim2

1Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq

2Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq

Abstract

Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is the most widely recognized reason for dementia in more advanced age subjects and it`s a vital general medical issue. Since Alzheimer portrayed the primary instance of the AD over a century back, much advancement has been made in reading the pathogenic and clinical findings of this disorder. Generous progression was made in describing pre-dementia phases of the AD, for example, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and enhancing the diagnostic and treatment choices accessible for overseeing AD. Our capacity to discover the `fix` for AD eventually depends not just on possessing an exact view of the cellular procedures, but additionally on having ideal biomarkers and valuable neuroimaging tests to empower early analysis and convenient helpful mediation in suspected people. The object for this article is to give a short review to the AD and the related researches in this field. The article accentuates clinical and neurobiological parts of the AD. Furthermore, this survey portrays progress in the utilization of biomarkers for analysis of AD and features continuous endeavors to create novel treatments.

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Formulation and Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Polyherbal Formulation in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rat

 

Shyam Sunder Shah, Ashish Manigauha*, Balkrishna Dubey

Department of Pharmacology, Technocrats Institute of Technology-Pharmacy, Anand Nagar, Bhopal – 462021 (MP), India

Abstract

Gymnema sylvestre, Trigonella foenum andPhyllanthus emblica are used for the management of diabetes. The mixing of these plant parts in different ratio may produce synergistic antidiabetic action. Hence the aim of the present study was to formulate polyherbal formulations containing various proportions of Gymnema sylvestre (Leaves), Trigonella foenum (Seeds) andPhyllanthus emblica(Fruits) to investigate their antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rat. The physicochemical estimations namely total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water soluble ash value, loss on drying, alcohol soluble extractive values and water soluble extractive value for plants parts were performed. The decoction of four different polyherbal formulations (HF1 to HF4) were prepared and antidiabetic activity was investigated in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rat. The physicochemical value of plant materials were under limits and acceptable. The administration of polyherbal formulation (HF1 to HF4) significantly decreased the blood glucose levels compared to control diabetic rats. The polyherbal formulation significantly lowered the elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) level while increased the high density lipoprotein (HDL) indicates the antihyperlipidemic activity. The findings demonstrated the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of polyherbal formulations, and HF2 produce higher protective effect from diabetes.  

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Scientific Reports of Medicinal Plants Used for the Prevention and Treatment of Neurodegenerative diseases

 

Sunali Lalotra*, J S Vaghela

Bhupal Nobles‘ College of Pharmacy, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive degeneration / death of nerve cells or neurons in the human brain. Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are the major Neurodegenerative diseases, which are characterized by progressive loss (and even death) of structure and function of neurons, and have created great burden to the individual and the society. Treatment of these diseases with prolonged administration of synthetic drugs will lead to severe side effects. Therefore herbal treatment is being preferred over conventional treatments. Much attention and so scope is drawn towards herbal remedy of many Neurodegenerative diseases. The present review puts together research on various medicinal plants that have shown promise in reversing the Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s pathology and highlights importance of phytochemicals of medicinal herbs on neuroprotective function and their mechanism of action.

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Extraction and Evaluation of Linseed Mucilage as Binding Agent in Prednisolone Tablet 20 mg

 

Alaa Balla Suliman Abuelrakha*, Elnazeer I. Hamedelniel

1 Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Omdurman Islamic (OIU), P.O. Box 382 Omdurman, Sudan

Abstract

Great interest been have develop to discover new excipients to solve problem that faced us during formulation like incompatibility and compressibility that lead to slow down manufacturing processes. Linseed mucilage has properties that suggested it as useful additives and binding agent like inertness, nontoxic and viscosity. The purpose of the present study was to extract and evaluate linseed mucilage as binding agent in prednisolone tablets. The Linseed mucilage was extracted and evaluated for physicochemical properties using official procedures. Tablet was prepared by wet granulation. Granules evaluation revealed satisfactory results. Three formula were prepared that contain three different percent from linseed mucilage 3%, 5% and 7%.The hardness test result show great increase in tablet hardness 4.23, 5.59 and 7.76, respectively. The dissolution test was carried in Ph 1.2 for 2 hours and cumulative drug release 20.33%, 17.88% and 14.49% respectively .And at Ph 6.8 for 4 hours cumulative drug release 78.18%, 75.43% and 69.19%. The tablets formulated showed acceptable general appearance. Formula mucilage 7% showed the best flowbility of granules, hardness and friability when compared with formulas 3% and 5%.In weight variation test indicated that the type and concentration of mucilage used were not significant. When increase the percent of mucilage in formula combined with increase in tablet hardness. Invitro dissolution study indicated that the main factors which influence the amount of drug released were the pH of the medium used and concentration of the mucilage.

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Recent Advances in Pharmacological and Phytochemistry Studies on Phyllanthus amarus

 

Mansi Gupta*, J S Vaghela

Bhupal Nobles‘ College of Pharmacy, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

The use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases has been increased due to minimum side effect compared to synthetic drug. Further the herbal products are considered as safe drugs. Phyllanthus amarus claimed tribal people for remedy of different diseases namely diarrhoea, dysentery, dropsy, jaundice, intermittent fevers, kidney problems, urinary bladder disturbances, pain, gonorrhea, diabetes, urogenital disorders, chronic dysentery, skin ulcers, sores, swelling, itchiness, tubercular ulcers, ringworm, scabies and wounds. Phyllanthus amarus contains isobubbialine, epibubbialine, securinine, nor-securinine, dihydrosecurinine, geraniin, corilagin, 1,6-digalloylglucopyranoside rutin , quercetin3-O-glucopyranoside, amarulone, niranthin, nirtetralin, phyltetralin, hypophyllanthin, phyllanthin, hypo-phyllanthin, demethylenedioxy-niranthin, kaempferol, astragalin, etc chemical constituents in its different parts. The extract of Phyllanthus amarus retains multiple pharmacological activities such as Anticarcinogenic, Antiproliferative, Gastroprotective, Cardioprotective, Antileptospiral, Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antiviral, Antivenom,Antiinflammatory etc. We planned to illustrate the recent studies appeared in Phytochemisty and Pharmacological activities of Phyllanthus amarus in order to highlight its multi-activity properties.

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