Multi-particulate Drug Delivery  Systems of Fenofibric Acid: Optimization of Formulation Using Statistical Experimental Design


Bala Vishnu Priya Mukkala1*, Murthy T.E.G.K2, Prameela Rani Avula3 

1Formulation research and development, RA Chem Pharma Ltd, Hyderabad-500076, Telangana, India

2Department of pharmaceutics, Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, Guntur-522101, Andhra Pradesh, India

3Department of pharmaceutics, Acharya Nagajuna University, Guntur-522510, Andhra Pradesh, India


The objective of the present research work was to develop a multi-particulate modified release system of Fenofibric acid using Wurster (Bottom spray fluid bed coating) process. Impact of various formulation variables was assessed by using statistical interpretation such as ANOVA. A 33 (three factor, three level) face centered central composite design was employed to study the effect of independent variables (concentration of ER Polymer, plasticizer and pore former), on dependent variables (drug release at 2.5th h & 6th h). Optimization of the formulation variables was done by fitting experimental data to the software program (Design Expert). The design space for formulation variables was developed. Fabricated pellets were characterized for various physico-chemical parameters. In vitro release data of the optimized formulation was fitted into various kinetic equations. The optimized formulation showed a desired  drug release at both 2.5th h and 6th h as 17.5 ± 2.28% & 87.1 ± 0.75% respectively. The drug release from the capsules followed first order kinetics and controlled by non fickian transport. The information acquired in this study recommends that the multi-particulates of Fenofibric acid can be effectively intended to give a delayed  release of Fenofibric acid and thus enhanced bioavailability.


Evaluation of the Mycochemical and Proximate Composition of Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus VAR Florida, (MONT) Singer. and P. pulmonarius (FR) QUEL) Grown on Bark of Gmelina arborea Roxb.,Straw of Saccharum officinarum L.and Pods of Delonix regia (BOJ. Ex Hook.) RAF


Okwulehie I. C.1, Oti, V. O.1, Ikechukwu G. C.2*

1Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P. M. B 7267 Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P. M. B 7267 Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria


Mushrooms are fungal fruit-bodies which have over successive years served as suitable source of protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. The fruit-bodies derive their nutrients from varieties of substrates including agro-wastes. This study was conducted to evaluate the potentials of using the pods of Delonix regia, straws of Saccharum officinarum and bark of Gmelina arborea in the production of nutritionally-rich edible oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius. The experiment was carried out in three replicates in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. The results of the investigations were analysed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the means were separated using Least Significant Different (LSD) tool. The result of the myco-chemical analysis shows that fruit-bodies of P. ostreatus var florida, produced in Saccharum officinale straw, yielded the higher alkaloids (3.93±0.010g/100g) than those produced in Gmelina+Delonix (3.84±0.025g/100g) and S. officinale+D. regia , (3.77±0.03g/100g). The trend was the same with Flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phenols from S. officinale, G. aborea + D. regia and S. officinale + D. regia, and D. regia. Pleurotus pulmonarius from the substrates contained low concentration of alkaloids but higher concentration of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phenols. Generally the substrates yielded fruit-bodies that are rich in protein. However those from S. officinale + D. regia appeared richer in protein (28.44±0.03g/100g). The substrates showed encouraging potentials for use in the production of nutritionally-rich edible P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius, with S. officinale + D. regia standing out as a more likely preferred substrates. There appears to be a synergism between the substrates of S. officinale and D. regia, since the mean of their individual performance is less than their performance when combined.


Study on Antimicrobial Potential of Selected Non-antibiotics and its Interaction with Conventional Antibiotics


Michael Hadera1, Selam Mehari1, N. Saleem Basha1*, Nebyu D. Amha1 and Yacob Berhane2

1Pharmaceutics Unit, School of Pharmacy, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, P.O Box.8566, Eritrea, North East Africa

2Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Professions, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, P.O Box.8566, Eritrea,     North East Africa


The escalating levels of antimicrobial drug resistance render it indispensable to explore newer drugs with lesser degrees of toxicity and with fewer chances of developing resistance. Various studies on the discovery of novel antimicrobials have found different degrees of antimicrobial activity in commonly used medicines with diverse pharmacological actions i.e., non-antibiotics. The present work aimed to describe qualitatively and quantitatively in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs i.e., Acetyl salicylic acid, Methyldopa, Propranolol and Fluoxetine alone and in combination with three conventional antimicrobial drugs i.e., Ciprofloxacin, Benzyl penicillin, and Fluconazole against three standard test microorganisms, i.e., E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. Agar well diffusion method was used for testing antimicrobial sensitivity, while the drug interaction was estimated using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index) obtained from checkerboard broth dilution method.  All the four non-antibiotics tested for antimicrobial activity showed activity against at least one tested microorganism, whereas fluoxetine showed antimicrobial activity against all tested organisms. Combined effect of fluconazole + fluoxetine and fluconazole + propranolol against C. albicans showed synergistic activity based on the FICindex value obtained i.e., 0.25 and 0.1875, respectively. Based on the results, study suggests that fluoxetine among the other non-antibiotics has a potential for being developed into an effective antimicrobial agent. However, the study needs to be extended in the future to determine the in vivo antimicrobial activity.


Effect of Extraction Solvents on Bioactive Compounds and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Varieties of Garcinia kola (heckel)OBOWO 02 (soft and less bitter) and OBOWO 03 (Hard and Very Bitter)


Okwulehie I. C*., Alozie V. C., Ikechukwu G. C., Nwokeocha O. W. 

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB-7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria


The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the extracts obtained using the different solvents - water, acetone, methanol and ethanol on the phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of Garcinia kola (Obowo 20 and 03). The following 4 bacterial isolates were used for the investigation of the antimicrobialactivities and and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis of each of the extract indicated the presence of tannin, saponin, flavonoid, Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), alkaloid, carotenoid, anthocyanin and phenol. The extracts exhibited significant inhibitory action against S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosaand E. coli. The result revealed that methanol extract exerted the highest significant activities (P> 0.05) against all the tested organisms at the various treatment regimes with S. aureus having a wider zone of inhibition followed by E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhiwith the lowest inhibitory zones. The MIC of the methanol extract against the organisms was 12.5, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extract showed the least significant activity against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi with MICs of 25, 25, 25 and 50mg/ml respectively.


Read More