Comparative Studies on Phytochemical Analysis of Callus and Wild Plants of Phyllanthus niruri with Special Reference to Phyllanthin

 

Aarti Patel1*, Pratibha Singh1, Shagufta Khan2 

1Sarojini Naidu Govt Girls PG Autonomous College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India

Abstract

The main objective of the present study was to induce callus form nodal explants of Phyllanthus niruri and, compared the quantification of Phyllanthin in callus and naturally propagated Phyllanthus niruri. For callus initiation, different sterile plant parts were transferred on MS medium supplemented with auxins either alone like 0.5-2.0 mg/l  2- 4 D or with varied concentration and combinations of cytokinins like 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l KN. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus niruri plant and callus were prepared and performed its phytochemical analysis. The total flavonoids and polyphenol were investigated to quantify the presence of polyphenol compounds in callus extract and plant extract. The quantification of Phyllanthin in plant extract and callus extract were performed by HPLC. Maximum callus (90.5%) induction from stem/leaf segments on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D with 0.5 mg/l  BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) within 25 days which was fragile in morphology. Preliminary phytochemical revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites in different extract of plant. The concentrations of flavonoids polyphenol in ethanol extract of callus were higher compared to crude plant extract. Further  Phyllanthin content in callus was found to be significantly increased in response to field grown plants.

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Age-related Changes in the Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70 and 90 on the Gastric Mucosa During Gastric Ulcer Healing

 

Ajayi Ayodeji Folorunsho1, Aniviye Blessing Oluwafunke1, Kehinde Busuyi David2, Akintola Adebola Olayemi3

1Department of Physiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomosho, Nigeria

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

Abstract

Heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (HSP-70 and HSP-90) are associated with gastroprotective and ulcer healing potentials. Reports in literatures have shown that age affects gastric ulcer healing, but the role of these heat shock proteins in relation to age has not been fully understood. This study, therefore, investigated changes in the expression of HSP-70 and HSP-90 in the gastric mucosa of 3, 6 and 18-month old rats during healing of Acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Male Wister rats (aged 3, 6 and 18 months) were divided into 3 groups according to their ages. Acetic acid ulcer model was used for this study. Ulcer area, oxidative stress, antioxidant markers, HSP-70 and HSP-90 concentration by ELISA and expression by immunohistochemistry was assessed. Results obtained indicate the highest percentage area healed on day 14 in 3 months old rats (100%), while percentage healing for 6 and 18 months old rats was 89.00% and 55.29%, respectively. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was directly proportional to age, while antioxidant enzyme (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) activities were inversely proportional to age. The concentration and expression of HSP-70 were inversely proportional to age while HSP-90 had directly proportionality to age. The histological architecture also confirmed the faster rate of healing in 3-month old rats recorded in this study.This study indicates that HSP-70 and HSP-90 play different roles in age-related healing of gastric ulcers.

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Standardization of Protocol for in vitro Micropropagation of Phyllanthus niruri:An Important Medicinal Plant

 

Aarti Patel1*, Pratibha Singh1, Shagufta Khan2

1Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls PG Autonomous College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India

Abstract

An efficient regeneration protocol for Phyllanthus niruriwas developed using nodal explants on MS medium augmented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The highest frequency (85.5%) of bud break and shoot induction was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP along with 0.5 mg/l IBA with the formation of 4.2±0.5 number of shoots having length of 3.0±0.1 centimeters within ten days.  MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l Kinetin in combination with NAA (0.5 mg/L) showed the highest percentage (80.0%) shoot multiplicationwith an average of 9.0±0.7 adventitious shoots, directly from the explants, without any callus formation. Shoots formed were remarkable healthy and achieved the length of 10.0±0.5 centimeters in 25 days. Elongated shoots were rooted best on MS medium with 1.0 mg/l IBA producing maximum number of roots with 85% response with average length 8.0±0.3 cm within 15 days. The plantlets were gradually acclimatized and successfully transferred to field condition with 98% survival rate after rooting. The standardized protocol reported in this study may help in large scale propagation of this plant species which is currently exploited from the nature.

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Study Effect of Camphor fumes on the Pulmonary Functions

 

Mmehime F O1, Alagwu D N2, Ezekwe A S2, Nwankwo A A1, Alagwu E A2

1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Abia State University, PMB 2000 Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

2Department  of Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Medicine ,Imo State University PMB 2000, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Abstract

Effect of occupational exposure to  camphor fumes on the pulmonary function was studied using one hundred (100) selected Igbo women working in camphor industry in Aba,Abia State, Sought East Nigeria, exposed to camphor fumes for over 15years (test subjects). They were compared with age, body weight and height marched control who were mostly house wives and civil servants not exposed to any known fumes or air pollutants and with no history of chest infections or spinal cord injury. Lung function indices investigated to include  Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume per second (FEV1),ration of FEV1/FVC expressed as percentage (FEV1%)  and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). The study which lasted for 4 months, was carried out using a Vitalograph Spirometer and Peak  Expiratory Flow Meter. Results obtained  showed  statistically significant reduction in lung function indices (FVC,FEV1 and PEFR)  for workers exposed to camphor  fumes (test)  compared to the  control subjects(P<0.001).  However,FEV1% in the Test group was 89.1% compared with the control (98.0%).Although both groups appeared normal and within normal values with no statistical difference but in some lung diseases like pulmonary fibrosis and other similar lung conditions,FEV1% may  appear normal, yet there is derangement  in pulmonary  functions. This is not the case in this present study which showed restrictive pattern of lung defect as shown by the significant statistical results. The result of mean values of anthropometric parameters which included age, height, body weight and body mass index obtained showed that  the test and control subjects were statistically not significant when compared (P>0.05). It was not possible to determine the effects of environmental factors like carbon dioxide (CO2) carbon monoxide (CO) and other gaseous fumes emitted during the processing period. It is therefore concluded that camphor fumes contributed significantly to the disorder observed in this study.

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