Inclusion of Different Levels of Eucalyptus Oil: An In Vitro Trial to Study the Effect on Sheep Rumen Methanogenesis and Fermentation Processes


Tisa Mukharji, Meera Srivastava*

Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner 334001, Rajasthan, India


An in vitro trial was conducted in fermentation vessels under anaerobic conditions using composite feed-1 and composite feed-2 with inclusion of different levels of Eucalyptus oil (EO) along with buffered rumen liquor of sheep to observe the effects of oil on rumen methanogenesis and fermentation. The CF-1 consisted of 40% of concentrate and CF-2 had 25 % of concentrate. The various concentrations of EO used in present study were 0.5,1 and 2 µl/ml. During the present investigation it was observed that on increasing concentration of EO in CF-1 and CF-2 resulted in linear decrease in total gas production up to 74.26% in CF-1; and 31.01% by inclusion of EO in CF-2, respectively. The findings suggest that decrease in total gas production and methane concentration was highly pronounced in CF-1 compared to CF-2. The rumen digestibility in CF-1 and CF-2 also decreased significantly (p < 0.01) from control. A significant decrease in NH3 –N compared to control was also documented. As EO in both the feeds was found to inhibit deamination activity, the ammonia production decreased with increase in the efficiency of protein utilization. The inclusion of the oil decreased the Total Volatile Fatty Acids (TVFA) concentration significantly (p < 0.01). The A:P ratio increased by inclusion in CF-2 but not in CF-1. The pH was effected on inclusion of EO in CF-2 whereas inclusion of EO in CF-1 exhibited non significant effect.  Therefore, the difference in Volatile Fatty acids (VFA) pattern due to essential oil might be because of different diets and pH in different experiments. The inclusion of EO decreased the protozoa number significantly (p < 0.01). EO was found to decrease fermentation in a manner that even at 0.5 µl/ml concentration there was a significant decrease in GP, ME, SCFA, TDDM and MBP. It could therefore be envisaged that increasing the proportion of concentrate in diets and using EO as a feed additive increases the rumen efficiency by reducing the methane concentration and gas production. 


Bacteriological Profile and Preservative Capacity of Commercial Creams and Lotions


Summera Rafiq1*, Shameem Iqbal2, Shaik Jasmine Shahina3

1*Head & Assistant Professor, Dept of Microbiology, Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed College for Women,Chennai-600018, India

2Dept of Microbiology, Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed College for Women,Chennai-600018, India

3Assistant Professor,Dept of Microbiology, Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed College for Women,Chennai-600018, India


The 15 commercially available cosmetic formulations including creams and lotions were examined in order to verify the degree of possible microbiological contamination. The TVC (Total Viable Count) in unused creams and lotions was ranged between 3X104   to 321X105 CFU/ml. While in used creams it was found to be between 23X104 to 539X106 CFU/ml. The most commonly isolated bacteria were found to be Staphylococcus aureus followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was reduction of 99% in the number of bacterial counts in 6 cosmetic creams and lotions as per the Cosmetics, Toiletries, and Fragrance Association (CTFA) methods which were done to detect the efficacy of the preservatives in cosmetics. The other 9 samples had reduced bacterial counts on 7th day but this was followed by the rapid increase of bacterial counts on 14th, 21st and 28th days showing that they were inadequately preserved. Of the 15 cosmetic products which were evaluated byRapid Challenge Test (RCT), 3 products displayed high CFU values of greater than 102 CFU /ml for  P. aeruginosa and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 after 1st and 7th day in three different dilutions therefore they were considered as high contamination risk products. While the remaining 6 products were observed to have rapid decline in bacterial counts after 1st and 7th day in three different dilutions making them medium–low contamination risk products.


Comparative Evaluation of Pharmacy Patient Safety Culture in all Levels of Health Care Delivery in Delta State, Nigeria


Eniojukan JF1*, Okinedo PO2, Ishiekwene AK2, Aghoja OC2

1Centre for Pharmacoepidemiology, Pharmacoeconomics and Patient Safety Research, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, PMB 071, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, PMB 1, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria


In health care, there is a move towards a patient safety culture as a means of ensuring sustainable positive patient care outcomes. This study evaluated the safety cultures in the health institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. An adapted form of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Questionnaire on Pharmacy Safety was administered to 118 pharmacy personnel in 10 hospitals spread across the 3 senatorial districts. Data was analyzed with SPSS.20. The number of pharmacists was inadequate; pharmacy organization at the secondary and tertiary levels was better than the primary level; At all three levels, the safety cultures of Staff Training and Skills, Teamwork, Communication Openness, and Patient Counseling were generally positively rated. Highly significant differences existed in the safety culture of documenting mistakes in the pharmacy. There were significant differences in most culture composites between the three levels of care. The general trend was Tertiary>Secondary>Primary in positivity. On the overall Rating of Patient Safety, all levels were rated Very Good / Excellent. However, there were isolated lapses in safety culture composites requiring attention; pharmacy managers, in particular, are therefore enjoined to re-evaluate the safety cultures in their domain to  identify areas of systemic failure.


Cigarette Smoking Practices, Perceptions and Awareness of Government Policies among Pharmacy Students in Niger Delta University in South-South Nigeria


Owonaro Peter A, Eniojukan Joshua F*

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, PMB 071, Bayelsa State, Nigeria


Despite the growing problem of cigarette use, we still do not have accurate information on the prevalence and pattern in Nigerian adolescents. This study evaluated the smoking habits and associated contextual correlates among pharmacy students in a tertiary institution in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional research was conducted involving 210 students and utilizing pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed with SPSS. 16.  Majority of respondents (66.4%) were aged 21-25 years; the male-female ratio was 1:0.9 and 99.3% were Christians. Smoking prevalence was 12.9% and more prevalent among males; age of smoking debut was 16-20yrs; (46.1%); majority (83.3%) smoked 1-5 sticks of cigarette per day; 16.7% and 33.3% respectively of males and females quitted  smoking at the time of the study. Reasons given for quitting included knowledge of health hazard (100%), to set a new example (83.3%) and as a result of advice from relations and friends (50%); the students exhibited a very positive perception on smoking and its cessation. There were no correlations of smoking habits with age and gender but withthe level of studies. Respondents demonstrated very low levels of awareness of World No Tobacco Day and the Nigeria Tobacco Control Decree. It is strongly advised that more effective campaign strategies be adopted to reach as many young people as possible. The pharmacy curriculum should contain adequate courses on smoking effects and cessation; programmes of student bodies should incorporate tobacco cessation activities. The existing tobacco smoking restrictions and policies should be strengthened and enforced. 


New Easily Swallowed Tablets with Slippery Coating for the Antihypertensive Drug Valsartan


Zainab H. Mahdi1*, Nidhal K. Maraie1 

1B.Sc. Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-10011, Iraq

2Assist. Prof., Ph.D, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-10011, Iraq


Different tablet dosage forms were prepared to be administered for patients with dysphagia (swallowing difficulties) like buccal, sublingual and orodispersible tablets, however, they possesses certain constrains like taste masking difficulties, limitations in drug and dose selection and friability. Hence, in an attempt to overcome these constrains, a new easily swallowed immediate release tablets containing (160mg) Valsartan were prepared, and designed to be slippery upon contact with saliva giving an easy swallowing of the intact tablet (without water) with efficient taste masking effect, thus, they called Oroslippery tablets (OSTs).Core tablets were prepared by direct compression using different superdisintegrants, followed by dipping in special coating dispersion containing different proportion of kollicoat IR (film former) and xanthan gum (slipperiness inducer) at different coating levels. These OSTs were optimized for their physical properties, in-vitro disintegration and release in addition to in-vivo slipperiness and taste masking effect.It was found that F12 containing 6% crosscarmellose sodium double coated with 15% kollicoat IR and 0.3% xanthan gum possessed a good mechanical strength (hardness=5.69±0.58 Kg/cm2, friability=0.09%±0.79), suitable in-vivo slipperiness and taste masking times (8±1.45 and 58±2.18 seconds) respectively, with longer disintegration time (5.57±1.36 minutes) but similar release profile to the commercial conventional tablet Diovan® with similarity factor (f2= 68.4±1.07) and difference factor (f1= 1.39± 0.95). Therefore, this study developed a new easily swallowed tablet with an efficient taste masking property, high loading capacity and adequate mechanical strength that can be used as an alternative to buccal, sublingual and orodispersible tablets.


PiCT: 1st Recognition for Human Whole Blood on QCM-D Platform


Munawar Hussain

Biosensor Research Group, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Transfusion Medicine and Centre of Clinical Transfusion Medicine (ZKT), Tuebingen University and German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service BW/H-72072, Germany


Instruments for point-of-care (POC) coagulation monitoring for whole blood could reduce fundamental limitations of routine coagulation tests. ‘Prothrombinase induced Clotting Time’ (PiCT) is considered a universal assay for anticoagulants monitoring in laboratory and clinics but it has not been evaluated yet. It could reduce the inherited drawbacks of highly variability of results among different individuals in the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) which is the most applied and clinical standard assay. In this report, PiCT for whole blood on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) platform for anticoagulant monitoring has been recognized for the first time. The present study demonstrates the lowest historical sample volume of human whole blood (as well as each reagent) consumption of 1.66 µL employed ever for coagulation. This is substantial support for launching spot test via QCM-D in laboratory and clinics and ultra-refining of POC settings. Different doses of danaparoid anticoagulant in blood samples (n=20) have been studied on QCM-D platform in parallel to ‘gold standard’. Both techniques demonstrated lower variability for anticoagulant with %RSD values between 3 and 8.5 depending on different anticoagulant doses. Data could be considered as precise and accurate for an anticoagulant recognition directly in blood using a clotting assay on QCM-D platform. Present study is crucial in the perspectives of robustness due to direct whole blood method on QCM-D platform and its cost-effectiveness due to lowest sample (as well as reagents) volume consumption.