Central Glutaminergic Influences on Viscero-visceral Inhibitory Reflex During Colonal Descending Distension in Ovine Model


B.F. Kania1*, D. Wronska2

1 Veterinary Medicine JU-AU Center, Fac. Anim. Sci., Hugon Kollataj Agricultural University in Cracow, 30-059 Cracow, Poland,

2Department of  Animal Physiology and  Endocrinology, Fac. Anim. Sci., Hugon Kollataj Agricultural University in Cracow, 30-059 Cracow, Poland


The aim of presented study was to examine the participation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in development and maintenence reticulo-ruminal motility inhibition caused by visceral pain caused by colonic distension (CD) of different degrees provoked in ovine. Motility inhibition was qualified as a vegetative symptom of the nocifensive effects (viscero-visceral inhibitory reflex). The experiment was carried out on 12 female sheep, Polish merino, in the anoestrus period. A five min  CD episode provokes a statistically significant reticulo-ruminal motility inhibition. Intracerebroventriculary (i.c.v.) administration of the group I mGluRs antagonist DL-AP3 10 min prior to CD, prevents the visceral pain development. Practically all pain symptoms were easy to observe and quantify. These symptoms were recurrently appearing in animals suffering colon distension; however,  the intensity was smaller than in the case of duodenal distension. It suggests that this model of colic is not only less invasive but also less painful for animals. In conclusion, the development and maintenance of reticulo-ruminal motor inhibition of colonic distension are dependent on group I mGluRs receptor activation in the CNS and that these receptors play a crucial role in modulating the acute colonic pain (experimental colic). This less invasive in vivo method may be useful for testing the efficacy of potentially analgesic xenobiotics in small ruminants.


Effect of Different Moisture and Storage Temperature on Seed Borne Mycoflora of Cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.)              


Anil Kumar Kushwaha

Department of Botany, S. D. P.G College, Akbarpur Kanpur Dehat-209101, Uttar Pradesh India                    


Cotton seeds with 66, 76, 86  and 96% moisture content stored at 10, 20, 30 and 40 ºC for 6 months, highest fungal species were observed in G. arboreum seeds at 76% and 86% relative humidity. The minimum fungal species at 96% relative humidity at 30 °C temperature for six months of storage. Thus 86% relative humidity and 30 °C temperature for six months of storage was observed as the best combination for the occurrence of maximum number of fungi.


Chromatographic Application on a Calixarene Stationary Phase: A Novel HPLC Determination of Flumethasone Pivalate and Salicylic Acid in Their Binary Mixture and Ointment Dosage Form after Two Steps Extraction


Hashem Hisham*

Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt


Present study reported for the first time about a new, simple, fast, robust and accurate, routine HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of Flumethasone Pivalate and salicylic acid in bulk powder and in an ointment dosage form. Chromatographic analysis was carried out on Calixarene stationary phase after two steps extraction. Water was used in first step for extraction of salicylic acid because the excipients in the ointment interfere with salicylic acid determination upon extraction with organic solvent. After that the residue was extracted with organic solvent for Flumethasone Pivalate. Acetonitrile and H2O in the ratio of 70:30 at flow rate of 1 mLmin-1 and 40 °C were applied as isocratic binary mobile phase. Detection was done at 240 nm. Limits of detection and quantitation for both analytes were 0.125 and 0.250 µg mL-1, respectively. The recovery values of this method were 98.99±0.66% and 97.50±1.33% for salicylic acid and Flumethasone Pivalate, respectively. The effect of small variations in temperature, flow rate, detection wavelength, acetonitrile percentage in mobile phase and injection volume was studied to determine the robustness of the method. The proposed method was found to be robust.  


Pharmacy Patient’s Bill of Rights in Saudi Arabia 


Yousef Ahmed Alomi

Past General Manager of General Administration of Pharmaceutical Care, Head, National Clinical pharmacy and pharmacy parctice, Head, Pharmacy R & D Adminstration, Ministry of Health, P.O.BOX 100, Riyadh 11392, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia


The patient bill of rights at hospital practice well established in Saudi Arabia while specialized designated area with emphasis on patient pharmacy bill of rights not found. General Administration of Pharmaceutical set strategic planning of pharmaceutical care with measuring tools of reflecting patient bill of rights leads to high patient satisfaction. In the literature seldom find about this topics. Most of pharmacy sciences and Institution zooming of pharmacy ethics without mentioned this issue. Pharmacy patient bill of rights in Saudi Arabia the first founded in the world. It contains several domains includes but not limited the following; Pharmacy general patients` rights, pharmacy communication section, medication reconciliation section. Medication safety section, medication therapy management section, patient counseling section, and pharmacy patient satisfaction. Those bill of the right prevents drug misadventure, improve patient outcome and raise our patient satisfaction.  


AB Initio Structural Analysis on Envelope (E) Glycoprotein of Dengue Virus (DENV) Type 1-4


VenkataramananS1*, Noor Adurrah MFL1, Zulhabri O1, Kavitha K2

1Faculty Health and Life Sciences, Management and Science University, Shah Alam-40100, Malaysia

2School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632 014, Tamilnadu, India



Any serotypes of dengue virus (DENV), which are DENV1-4, may lead to dengue infections. DENV spread via mosquito vector, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictusmosquitoes. DENV is one of the most prevalent viruses, which is causing dengue fever (DF), dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) that may be fatal. Currently, there are no antiviral drugs and effective vaccination available to combat DENV infections. Major component of DENV which plays the important role for viral binding to the receptor to induce the infection is an envelope (E) glycoprotein. The B-cell and T-cell epitopes for DENV1-4 are not yet determined. An effective vaccine against DENV infections should be a tetravalent vaccine that can counter-attack all four serotypes. Therefore, E glycoproteins of all four serotypes was chosen to be analyzed. Conserved regions were found in 100 sequences of each DENV serotype. Multiple sequence alignments was done to obtain consensus sequence. Multiple bioinformatics tools were used for prediction of B-cell and T-cell epitopesbased onantigenicity, hydrophilicity, beta-turn, flexibility and surface accessibility. Secondary and tertiary structures of E glycoprotein for each serotypes were predicted and aligned. Complete analysis showed that predicted epitopes were located within conserved regions, and DENV2 showed the highest percentage of mutation rates and had the highest similarity to DENV1, DENV3 and DENV4.


Clinical Pharmaceutical Care: A New Management Health Care Discipline in 2016


Mauro Luisetto1*, Ram Kumar Sahu2

1Pharm D.,Pharmacologist, European Specialist in Laboratory Medicine, Hospital pharmacist’s manager, Italy 

2Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur (CG)-493111, India


The development of clinical pharmacy in 1960-70s and pharmaceutical care in 1990 has represented an interesting innovation in pharmacy field. However clinical pharmacy and Pharmaceutical care showed some practice critical limits: (a) clinical pharmacy approach is more oriented to clinical population needs or pathology but is not strictly request to manage at the level of every single clinical case. (b) In hospital setting Pharmaceutical care can not to be applied to the entire patient for economic reason (limited number of pharmacist applied). In order to give more rationale priority of actions and to select the patient to be seen in priority way we think a good solution to apply the principle of pharmaceutical care with the instrument of clinical pharmacy into a new management systems.


Antibacterial and Phytochemical Screening of Ethanol Extract of Hemidesmus indicus roots


Prasanna Purohit1*, Ritu Thakur Bais1, Pratibha Singh1, Shagufta Khan2

1Department of Botany, Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls P.G.Autonomous College, Shivaji Nagar Bhopal (M.P.)-462021, India 

2Grow Tips Biotech, Bhopal (M.P)-462021, India.


Hemidesmus indicus belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae, and is one of the rare medicinal and aromatic plants of India. The Hemidesmus indicus recommended for the treatment of various diseases namely skin disease, liver impairment, leprosy, dysentery, bronchitis etc by tribal people. The present study was aimed to investigate the phytochemical and antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of Hemidesmus indicus root. The ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root was prepared and phytochemical screening was performed. The findings indicate the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, polyphenol, saponins and terpenoids in extract. The antibacterial activity of various concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) of ethanol extract was tested by disk diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, S. epidermis, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and S. flexneri. Zones of Inhibition produced by extract at various concentrations against selected strains were measured. The highest zones of growth inhibition were observed against B. subtilis compared to other microorganism. It produced a mean zone diameter of 23.5 mm at a dose of 100% on B. subtilis and lowest zone of growth inhibition was observed on S. epidermis, which gave a zone of inhibition measuring 9.8 mm.


Spectrofluorimetric and Spectrophotometric Determination of Irbesartan and Bisoprolol hemifumarate independently in their Tablets


Afaf A. Abdelmonem1, Gamal H. Ragab1, Hisham A. Hashem*1,2and Eman A. Bahgat1

1Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical analytical chemistry department, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt

2Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical chemistry department, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia Kingdom


Sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric   methods were developed for the determination of Irbesartan (IRB) and Bisoprolol hemifumarate (BPH) in their tablets dosage form. Both methodologies are based on charge transfer reaction between the studied drugs and 7-Chloro-4-nitrobenzen-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole NBD-Cl. The developed orange products were measured in the appropriate solvent fluorometrically at 534 and 538 nm after excitation at 465 and 470 nm for IRB and BPH, respectively. The fluorescence–concentration plots were rectilinear over the range of 2.5–8 μg/mL for IRB and 6–16 μg/mL for BPH with lower detection limits of 0.18 and 0.39 μg/mL and a lower quantification limit of 0.55 and 1.17 μg/mL for IRB and BPH, respectively. The spectrophotometric method is based on measuring the orange colored products which were developed upon charge transfer complex formation between the studied drugs and (NBD-Cl) in organic media. This showed absorption maxima at 476 nm and 479 nm for IRB and BPH, respectively. The absorbance–concentration plots were rectilinear over the range of 20–90 μg/mL for IRB and 40–160 μg/mL for BPH with lower detection limits of 1.37 and 3.98 μg/mL and lower quantification limits of 4.17 and 12.06 μg/mL for IRB and BPH, respectively. Both methods were successfully applied to the analysis of the two selected drugs. The current study showed that the results were in good agreement with the reference methods.


Fluid and glucose transport across intestinal epithelium following honey intake in rats


Alagwu E.A.1, Azuoma K.E.2, Achike C.2, Uloneme G.C.3*, Akukwu D.³, Osim E.E.4

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State-460222, Nigeria

2Physiology Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Anambra State University Uli, Anambra State-432103 Nigeria

3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State-460222, Nigeria

4Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Cross River State-540241, Nigeria


The effect of honey intake on fluid and glucose absorption in rats was studied using everted sacs intestine techniques. Twelve rats (180-200 gm) were randomly selected and grouped into the control (A) and honey-fed (test) group (B) with six rats in each group. The control group was fed with rat chow and water while the test group was fed with rat chow, water and honey. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks excluding two weeks of acclimatization. The animals were scarified at the end of study and the abdomen opened immediately, and the intestine dissected out. 10 cm long of the intestine (2 from jejunum, 2 from ileum) were cut out and used for the everted sacs experiment. The results showed that honey intake did not affect fluid transport but affected glucose transport across the small intestine. There were no significant differences observed in initial wet weight (IWW), initial serosal volume (ISV) and final serosal volume (FSV) in both the test and control groups (p>0.05). No significant differences were also observed in mucosal fluid transfer (MET), serosal fluid transfer (SET) and gut fluid uptake (GFU) in both the test and control groups (p>0.05). However, mucosal glucose transfer (MGT), serosal glucose transfer (SGT) and GGU, while MGT and SGT were significantly higher in the test group compared to the control (p<0.05), the gut glucose uptake (GGU) was however significantly reduced in the test compared with the control (p<0.05). It is therefore concluded that honey intake significantly reduced GGU while it significantly increased MGT and SGT in the intestinal epithelium of Wister rats.


In Vitro Study on Hepatoprotective Effect of Phyllanthus fraternus Against Lead Induced Toxicity


Flora C. Shah*, Nayan K. Jain 

Department of Life-Science, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-380009, India 


Lead is one of the most abundant and hazardous environmental contaminants of the global concern. Environmental and occupational exposure to lead has continued to pose a serious threat to the health of living organisms due to its propensity to induce toxicity in mammalian systems. The major aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate ameliorative potential of Phyllanthus fraternus against lead induced hepatotoxicity. Current synergistic study involves exposure of goat liver homogenate to different concentrations of lead acetate and specific concentration of Phyllanthus fraternus aqueous extract for particular duration. During the study, biochemical indices like lipid peroxidation (LPO), Protein levels and enzymatic activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALPase), acid phosphatase (ACPase) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were measured. Results of the present study revealed that protein levels and enzymatic parameters of alkaline phosphatase as well as succinate dehydrogenase declined significantly while levels of lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase increased significantly in lead acetate exposed goat liver homogenates as compared to control groups. The results also emphasized that effect of lead acetate was dose dependent. As the dosage of lead was increased, the intensity of damage to liver also found to be increased. Maximum alterations in all biochemical parameters were found at the dosage of 5 ppm. The results of the current study strongly suggested that lead had affected antioxidant system, protein content and activities of specific metabolic enzymes of liver homogenate. Co-administration of herbal aqueous extract of Phyllanthus fraternus (5 mg/ml) along with 5 ppm lead acetate to liver homogenate exerted an ameliorative effect and maintained the studied parameters closed to control group, which confers its protective role against lead induced hepatotoxicity.


Patients’ Perception of Medication Therapy Management in a Hospital Pharmacy Setting


Akonoghrere Rita O*,Ogigirigi Rukeme J

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria


The perception of patients on Medication therapy management (MTM) in a hospital pharmacy setting was investigated. The objectives of study was the determination of the extent to which patients in the Outward Patient Department (OPD) had knowledge of MTM services rendered by pharmacists and their attitude towards MTM services as well as identifying the kind of MTM services rendered by hospital pharmacists to patients. The study employed the survey research design and used a self-developed questionnaire to elicit information from 150 respondents in two government hospitals in Delta State Nigeria. The data analysis employed the use of descriptive (percentages) and inferential (chi-square) statistics at a significant level of P0.05) influence on their attitude towards MTM services while educational qualification and disease state had a significant (P<0.05) interaction and influence. It identified drug therapy reviews and patient education on therapy as the kind of MTM services rendered to patients. Patients should be encouraged to seek more knowledge about the relevance of various health care providers in the health sector as this will help improve their attitude and response towards care provided by the various health care professionals.


Antidiabetic Effect of Sargassum wightii and Ulva fasciata in High fat diet and Multi Low Dose Streptozotocin Induced Type 2 Diabetic Mice


Lucy Mohapatra1*, Subrat Kumar Bhattamishra2,4, Ramachandra Panigrahy1, Sambit Parida3, Premalata Pati1

1Department of Marine Sciences, Berhampur University, Berhampur-760007, Odisha, India

2Roland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Berhampur-760010, Odisha, India

3College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Berhampur-760002, Odisha, India

4Present address: Dept. of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Buki Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of edible seaweeds Sargassum wightii and Ulva fasciata with an objective to establish these seaweeds as add-on therapy for controlling diabetes. The ethyl acetate extract of Sargassum wightii (EAS) and Ulva fasciata (EAU) at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose was examined for antidiabetic activity in the high fat diet and multi-low-dose streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic mice. Plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT], lipid profile, liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, triglycerides,superoxide dismutase [SOD], body and organ weight was estimated at the end of the study. Consequently, histopathology of liver was also studied. Both EAS and EAU showed significant reduction in plasma glucose level and the area under curve [AUC] of OGTT was significantly (p<0.001) attenuated. The extracts appreciably normalized lipid profile, body and organ weight. At higher doses of both EAS and EAU showed significant (p<0.05) improvement in SOD level of skeletal muscle and reduction in liver as well as skeletal muscle triglycerides. Both the extracts considerably enhanced hepatic and muscle glycogen content. Remarkable improvements were found in the histopathological observations of liver of all the treated groups as compared against the diabetes induced group. The findings suggest that these seaweeds offer a great opportunity to satisfy the food and nutrition requirement for rectifying and controlling diabetes.


Formulation Evaluation and Optimization of Proniosome Based Transdermal Patchesof Ketorolac


Behin Sundara Raj1*, Vidya2, Punitha Isaac Samraj3

1School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Bentley, Perth, Western Australia – 6102
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Shree Devi college of Pharmacy, Airport Road, Kenjar, Mangalore, Karnataka, India – 574 142
3Department of Pharmacognosy, Shree Devi college of Pharmacy, Airport Road, Kenjar, Mangalore, Karnataka, India – 574 142


Proniosomes are dry detailing of water-solvent bearer particles that are covered with surfactant and can be apportioned as required and dried out to frame niosomal scattering promptly before use on brief disturbance in hot fluid media inside of minutes. They have potential applications in the conveyance of hydrophobic and hydrophilic medications. Diverse clusters of proniosomes of Ketorolac tromethamine were readied by coacervation stage detachment strategy with distinctive proportions of polymers and surfactants. The physicochemical similarity of the medication and the polymers was considered by FTIR and DSC. The outcomes acquired demonstrated no physical-compound incongruently between the medication and the polymers. The readied frameworks were portrayed for embodiment effectiveness, shape, size and in vitro medication discharge. Release study was completed to research the draining of medication from the proniosomal framework amid capacity. On the premise of results acquired the gel KP 4 was upgraded and further utilized for the creation of transdermal patches with a backing layer (4% PVA) and a suitable rate controlling film. Distinctive rate controlling layers were readied with Eudragit RS-100 (ERS), Eudragit RL-100 (ERL) by mercury substrate method. The formulations were created and subjected to different physicochemical assessments and in vitro study. The patch manufactured with ERS (KTP 1) as rate controlling film was advanced as the best fix and further assessed for in vivo pervasion in rats. Investigation was completed to guarantee the connection between the in vitro and in vivo discharge design. The study exhibited that proniosomal transdermal patch in view of the ERS layer controlled discharge framework has the potential  to deliver ketorolac tromethamine.