A Contribution on the Microcharacters of Barleria prionitis L. Useful in Pharmcognosy


Milvee K. Vyas, Kailash Patel, Kunjal V. Soni*

Department of Biosciences, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Udhna Magdalla Road, Surat, 395007, Gujarat, India


Barleria prionitis (Acanthaceae)is an important medicinal plant distributed throughout the various regions of India and useful in urinary and paralytic affection, stomach disorders, catarrh, cough and anasaraca and lacerated sole. In the present investigation an attempt was made to study the anatomy of root, stem, lamina, midrib, petiole, stomata and trichomes as well as histochemical localization of various substances viz., calcium oxalate, lignin, suberin, lipids in the organs of Barleria prionitis.The present study revealed that the plant distinguishing microcharacters viz., bicollateral vascular bundles, internal phloem, uni - biseriate xylem rays, inverted omega shape vascular bundle, diacytic stomata and eglandular as well as glandular trichomes which are useful in solving taxonomic problems and pharmacognosy. They have significance in identification of crude drugs from this taxon.


Testicular Cell Devastation in Wistar Rats on Administration of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Symphytum officinale


Ezejindu DN1*,Akingboye AJ2, Chukwujekwu IE1, Ihim AC3, Ndukwe GU4

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria

4Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria


Symphytum officinale was historically used to treat a wide variety of ailments ranging from bronchial problems, broken bones, sprains, arthritis, gastric and varicose ulcers, severe burns, acne and other skin conditions. It has been documented that the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Symphytum officinale provokedtoxic effect on the topical application or ingestion of the extract. We planned to study the effect of the aqueous extract of leaves of Symphytum officinale on male fertility in Wistar rats. The twenty four rats used for this study were randomized into groups A, B, C and D. Group A served as control and were orally administered 0.3 ml of distilled water; groups B, C and D received orally 0.2 ml, 0.4 ml and 0.6 ml of aqueous leaves extract of Symphytum officinale respectively for twenty eight days. The finding indicates that there was a significant (P<0.001) decreased in the body weight of group C and D compared to control group. The weight of the testes of groups C and D animals increased significantly (P<0.001) compared to control group A. The histological findings of the testes showed the presence of necrotic changes in the intestinal cells of the testes; they were massive multinucleated giant cells in groups C and D and loss of spermatides. The outcomes imply that aqueous extract of leaves of Symphytum officinale produced toxic effects in testicular morphology of the rats.


Microballoons: An Advance Avenue for Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System- A Review


Ritesh Kumar1*, Surbhi Kamboj2,Amrish Chandra3, Pawan Kumar Gautam4, Vijay Kumar Sharma2

1 IFTM University, Moradabad, 244102, Uttar Pradesh, India

2 Dr. K. N. Modi Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Modinagar,201204, Uttar Pradesh, India

3 Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, 201313, Uttar Pradesh, India

4 Department of Pharmacy, S. N. Medical College, Agra, 282002,Uttar Pradesh, India


The purpose of writing this review on microballoons is to accumulate the recent literature with a special focus on the novel technological advancements in floating drug delivery system to achieve gastric retention. Microballoons (Hollow microsphere) promises to be a potential approach for gastric retention. Microballoons drug-delivery systems are based on non-effervescent system containing empty particles of spherical shape without core ideally having a size less than 200 micrometer. Microballoons drug delivery systems have shown to be of better significance in controlling release rate for drugs having site specific absorption. The floating microballoons showed gastroretentive controlled release delivery with efficient means of enhancing the bioavailability and promises to be a potential approach for gastric retention. Optimized hollow microspheres will find the central place in novel drug delivery, particularly in safe, targeted and effective in vivo delivery promises to be a potential approach for gastric retention. They are gastroretentive drug-delivery systems, which provide controlled release properties. The advantages, limitation, methods of preparation of hollow microsphere, applications, polymers used in hollow microspheres, characterizations of microballoons and formulation aspects with various evaluation techniques and marketed products are covered in detail. 


Epidemiology of Childhood Asthma in Fayoum City (District) Egypt 


Esam Eldin Gad El Rab Ahmed*,  Ashraf Sayed Kamel,  Sayed Ali Amin, Alaa Eldin Hashem               

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Fayoum University, Fayoum-41522, Egypt


Asthma is a major public health problem worldwide. There was a sharp increase in the global prevalence of asthma over the last two decades. Few studies evaluated asthma prevalence in Egypt. Determination of the prevalence of bronchial asthma among school children aged 6-12 years old in Fayoum city (distrect) and identification of the risk factors associated with asthma. A questionnaire-based study conducted in the period from Feb to April 2013. We used a modified written International Study of Asthma and Allergies in the (ISAAC) questionnaire (phase I) translated into Arabic language. We added questions dealing with risk factors of asthma. We distributed 2872 questionnaires in this study which was conducted on (10) primary schools included both rural and urban areas. The subjects of the study were selected by multistage random sample technique. Out of the 2872 questionnaires, only 1656 questionnaires were returned only 103 children fitted the diagnosis of asthma. The prevalence of asthma in Fayoum city (district) 6.3%. was noted in females, high socioeconomic states and small family size. The main risk factors were: the first and second birth order, overcrowding at homes, high socioeconomic status, and small family size. Respiratory tract infections, exercise, smoking, house dust mites, diet, animal and allergens were the main precipitating factors for asthmatic attacks. The prevalence of bronchial asthma among primary school children aged 6-12 years old in Fayoum district, conducted in the year 2013, was 6.3% and was equally distributed among rural and urban areas. 


Comparative Study on Lipid Profile of Hypertensive Patients and Non-hypertensive Individuals in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India


Aakash Srivastava*, BK Binawara


Cardiovascular diseases are the highest cause of death in the industrialized world, and many of these deaths may be work related. Hypertension is the most common of the cardio-vascular diseases which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrial world. Stress, tension, smoking, liquors, insufficient rest, metabolic disorders, excessive consumption of tea or coffee, emotional disturbance etc. are also associated with high blood pressure. Several previous studies showed the relation between hyperlipidemia and hypertension. An excessive daily intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, and other sources of calories and subsequent disturbance of lipid profile leading to hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia are associated with obesity and, consequently, hypertension. The present study was designed to compare the serum triglyceride, cholesterol, High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) and Low Density Lipo-protein (LDL levels in hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals. While the relation between hyperlipidemia and hypertension is clearly shown, there are only a few studies which have compared the lipid profiles of hypertensive and non-hypertensive cases.  The aim and objectives of the present case-control study were to find out the relationship between serum lipids levels of the hypertensive patients with controls in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner and Department of General Medicine, Kothari Medical and Research Institute, Bikaner. Patients were selected randomly from the city, and the selected subjects were divided into two groups each comprising of 50 patients. Group I: untreated hypertension and served as study group; Group II: normotensive persons having normal Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (BP)    and served as a control group. Patients included in both the groups were assessed for lipid profile. Overall, it could be concluded that the serum lipid profile of recently diagnosed untreated hypertensive patient was deranged specially in a middle age group (the study group) as compared to healthy subjects. Based on the results obtained from the present study, it could be further envisaged that serum cholesterol; triglyceride levels are positively correlated with hypertensive patients whereas HDL-cholesterol has no significant changes with hypertension.


Risk Factors of Transient Early Wheezing in Infants below 2 years in Fayoum City


EsamEldin Gad-El-Rab Ahmad*, Hanaa Hassan Mahmoud El-Dash, Ashraf Sayed Kamel

1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Fayoum University, Fayoum-41522, Egypt


The three different phenotypes of wheezing in infants and children are transient early wheezing, non-atopic preschool wheezing and atopic or asthmatic wheezing. Early transient wheezers suffer from wheezing only during the first two years of life due to small airways caliber being more likely to narrow and obstruct.  The main phenomena are the absence of personal history and/or family of atopy, so they are born with lung deficiency. Transient early wheezing to represent about 60% among children. There are many risk factors, which predispose to transient early wheezing such as: maternal complications during pregnancy, type of delivery, type of feeding during infancy, overweight infants, passive smoking and day care attendance during infancy. The previous risk factors were studied well in many developed countries but not in our communities including Egypt. Study these risk factors among infants between two months and two years of age and this is the first study done for this common problem among Egyptian children.  The study included 160 infants between 2 months and two years, 80 of them were diagnosed as TEW (group 1) and another 80 healthy infants as a control group. Infants were subjected to the following: Detailed history with special emphasize on gestational age -infant gender-infant weight-prenatal and natal history- history of smoking in family- type of delivery -type of feeding. History of recurrent wheezing, need for hospitalization. Full Clinical Examination 3-Investigations: chest x ray and Laboratory tests: Full picture analysis and IgE total enzyme assay. The study revealed that TEW was encountered with large percentage among infants with history of: maternal disease during pregnancy (diabetes, hypertension and urinary tract infection), caesarian section delivery, over weight infants, family history of smoking, artificial feeding, consuming cow milk during first year of life and attendance to daycare during infancy. Overweight is a new risk factor that was observed in our study. Most of the noted risk factors are similar to that reported in studies done in developed countries in addition to overweight infants are associated.


A Multi-Dimensional Personality of Hoshangabad


Vidyulata Authey

Pacific University, Pacific Hills, Near pratapnagar Extension, Airport road, Debari, Udaipur-313003, Rajasthan, India 


According to the Architecture of the Constitution Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Dalits – are those who were treated as untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination. Dalit word is derived from Marathi Language and was used mostly in Maharashtra. All those who are grinded into pieces or exploited by the people of so called upper caste or high-class society, tireless efforts of Dr. Authey raised a structure of NGO named Dalit Sangh. He played a major role in imparting education among Dalits


Ulcer Healing Mechanism of Ethanolic Extract of Talinium triangulare in Male Wistar Rats


Ayodeji Folorunsho Ajayi1*, Abiola Moshood Folawiyo2, Temitope Adeola Salami3

1Department of Physiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

2Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine-Preclinicals, Ebonyi state University, PMB 053, Abakaliki, Nigeria

3Department of Physiology, University of Ibadan, PMB 5116, Ibadan, Nigeria


Talinium triangulare have been proven to offer promising antiulcer properties which could validate its’folkoric use for the treatment of gastric ulcer in various part of Nigeria. This study investigates the role of methanolic extract of Talinium triangulare (METT) in gastric ulcer healing and the possible mechanisms involved. Twenty-eight male wistar rats (160-180gm, n=7) were grouped into; A-control, B-ulcerated untreated, C-ulcerated treated with Omeprazole (20 mg/kg b.w.) and D-ulcerated treated with METT (100 mg/kg b.w.). Gastric ulcer was induced by injecting 0.2 MLs of 40% acetic acid into the glandular part of the stomach for 45 seconds after which it was withdrawn, and the stomach surface cleaned with normal saline.  Stomach samples were collected by day 14 post ulceration and assessed for ulcer score; a section of it was fixed for histological evaluationand immunohistochemical (Avidin-Biotin Immunoperoxidase method) analysis. Stomach tissue homogenates were used for enzymatic activities. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance method.There was a significant reduction in the ulcer area of the METT treated group compared with other ulcerated treated and untreated groups. Malondialdehyde concentration of the gastric tissue homogenate was significantly lower in METT treated group compared to other groups. The METT treated group significantly increased the level of superoxide dismutase and catalase compared to other test groups. Histological study showed that only METT treated rats produces predominantly normal mucosa, METT treated rats also expressed CD31 (a marker of angiogenesis) and EGFR (a marker of proliferation) more than the other rats, while the expressions of Ki67 (proliferation) and p53 (Apoptosis) by METT group were not different from other groups.Methanolic extracts of Talinum triangulare accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers in rats probably through reduced oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and angiogenesis.


Impact of Pharmaceutical Care Interventions on the Quality of Life of Group of Hypertensive Patients 


Akonoghrere Rita O.1, Arute John E.1, Akparobore Akpevwe2

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria

2Delta State Hospitals Management Board, Nigeria


Studies have shown that pharmaceutical care interventions have the potential of reducing hospital stay and drug therapy problems; it can also improve patients` quality of life. The primary objectives of this study was to show how pharmaceutical care interventions could resolve actual drug therapy problems and prevent potential drug therapy problems; also, to assess the change in the quality of life of hypertensive patients after such interventions. An uncontrolled prospective study was done. Hypertensive patients were recruited at the Medical Out-patients department (MOD) of Central Hospital Warri. Initially 104 patients were recruited, however, a total of 65 eligible patients were eventually used to asses for quality of life. Data were obtained using data collection forms; blood pressure was monitored using a sphygmomanometer, and patients were scheduled for follow up periodically for 6 months. Clinical outcomes and humanistic outcomes were assessed using the SF12 health survey form, and subsequently scored. DTPs were identified, case by case. All identified DTPs were reported in the patients’ pharmaceutical care data collection forms. Relevant descriptive and inferential statistics on data collected were performed. 65 patients were eventually followed up, 21.5% of them were males while 78.5% were females, with 72.3% of them aged 51years and above. Most of them (61.5%) had a family history of high blood pressure; 40% of them were diagnosed to have hypertension and diabetes; only 18.5% of them obtained their prescription re-fill from the hospital pharmacy. At the end of the study, a significant difference in the systolic blood pressure of the patients was discovered and there was a statistically significant association between DTP resolved/prevented and the pharmaceutical care intervention (p<0.001). The correlation between DTPs resolved/ prevented was significant in two domains of quality of life measure – the mental component summary (MCS), and the bodily pain domain. Pharmaceutical care provided to hypertensive patients in a secondary health facility in Warri, Nigeria, resolved some of the drug therapy problems identified and improved patients’ quality of life.


Incidence and Self-Care of Nausea and Vomiting Among Pregnant Women Attending a Maternal Clinic 


Ufuoma Shalom Ahwinahwi1*, Valentine Uche Odili2,  Ojevwe Esirorie1 

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration,  Delta State University ;  P.M.B 1, Abraka- Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, University of Benin, P.M.B 1154, Benin City- Nigeria


Nausea and vomiting (NVP) of pregnancy are common among women. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and the self- care measures adopted by women attending a maternal clinic.  A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out utilizing an interviewer-administered questionnaire to consenting pregnant women attending the maternal clinic of Central Hospital, Agbor; Delta state – Nigeria.  Of the 521 gravid women included in the study, 221 (42.4%) were within the age group of 27 and 32 years and had secondary level of education 238(45.7%).The mean gravidity of the participants was 2.68±1.54, mean gestational age at the time of the study was 24.68 weeks ± 7.40 and the mean gestational age at which nausea and vomiting were observed, and was 6.30 weeks ± 3.82. Three hundred and fifteen (60.5%) of the women experienced the symptoms of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Taking “bitterkola” (Garcinia kola) (22.9%) either alone or in combination with other substances was the most frequently occurring measure to control nausea and vomiting. Other measures taken included taking “native chalk” (18.8%), Ginger (5.6%) bitter leaves (Amygdala vernonia) (7.6%), fruits (19.9%), chewing gum (4.7%), taking sweets (9.4%), taking drugs (3.7%) and  rest (4.7%).Over 20% of the study population with nausea and vomiting opined that nausea and vomiting had a negative impact on their lives; however only 7.5%  are discouraged from getting pregnant as a result of nausea and vomiting. Use of self-care measures was associated with educational level of the respondents (P=0.004).  The rate of nausea and vomiting was high in the studied participants and Bitterkola (Garcinia kola) was the most commonly used agent for its prevention. The respondents who experienced nausea and vomiting reported its huge negative impact on their lives.


Assessment of the Health implications of Synthetic and Natural Food Colourants – A Critical Review


Sunday N. Okafor1*, Wilfred Obonga1, Mercy A. Ezeokonkwo2, Jamiu Nurudeen3, Ufoma Orovwigho3, Joshua Ahiabuike

1Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria

2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria

3Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria


Several types of dyes are available in the market as colouring agents to food commodities. Some commonly used synthetic food dyes include: brilliant blue, indigo carmine, citrus red, fast green, erythrosine, allura red, tartrazine and sunset yellow. The main food biocolorants are carotenoids, flavanoids, anthocyanidins, chlorophyll, betalain and crocin. There has been a rising concern over the health implications of the use of food dyes in human diets. How safe are these food colourants? This has led to a lot of studies, both by individual researchers, corporate organization-sponsored and even government-sponsored researches, to authenticate the benefits or risks associated with the use of food colourants (synthetic and natural). This review critically evaluated scientific researches from various published journal articles and reports, with a view of clarifying the health implications of using these food dyes. Various studies have shown that synthetic food colourants have considerable toxicological effects, including but not limited to carcinogenicity, hypersensitivity reactions, and behavioral effects. However, natural food colourants have been found to be relatively safe to humans. Besides the colouring property, they have been found to possess a number of pharmacological properties like strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and antiartheritic effects.