Moringa oleifera Attenuates Crude Oil Contaminated Diet Induced Biochemical Effects in Wistar Albino Rats


Achuba FI1*, Ubogu LA2, Ekute BO3

1Department of Biochemistry, Delta State University, PMB 1, Abraka, Nigeria.

2Department of food Science, Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, Nigeria

3Chemistry Unit, School of Science and Technology, National Open University of Nigeria, 14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria


The ability of Moringa oleifera leaves to protect against crude oil-contaminated diet imposed alterations in biochemical parameters of wistar albino rats was investigated. Exposure of rats to crude oil contaminated diet resulted in hepatic injury as evidenced by significant (P<0.05) increase in the activities of serum hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP). Serum urea, creatinine and potassium ion also significantly increased. Moreover, serum sodium, calcium, chloride and bicarbonate ions significantly (P<0.05) decreased in rats exposed to crude oil contaminated diet, indicating impaired kidney function. Similarly, exposure of rats to crude oil contaminated diet significantly (P<0.05) increased serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglyceride (TAG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) but significantly decreased high-density lipoproteins (HDL) when compared to the control. Moreover, the values of serum total protein, albumin and globulin significantly reduced in rats exposed to crude oil contaminated diet compared with values in rat fed uncontaminated diet. However, supplementing crude oil contaminated diet with Moringa oleifera significantly maintained serum levels of hepatic enzymes, urea, creatinine and electrolytes close to values obtained in control rats and significantly improved lipid profile and serum proteins. Rats fed Moringa oleifera treated diets exhibited reduced TC, TAG and LDL and a higher HDL compared to rats fed with crude oil contaminated diet. Besides, rats fed Moringa oleifera treated diet had significantly higher total protein, albumin and globulin as compared with rats fed crude oil contaminated diet. Thus, this study exhibits the protective effect of Moringa oleifera supplemented diet against the adverse biochemical effects that were mediated by crude oil.


ABO/Rhesus Blood Group and Correlation with Sickle Cell Disease and Type-II Diabetes Mellitus in South East and South-South of Nigeria


Alagwu EA1*,  Akukwu D2,  Ngwu EE1, Uloneme GC2

1Physiology Department, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Imo State University- 460222, Owerri

2Anatomy and Neurobiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Imo State University- 460222, Owerri


Correlation between ABO/Rhesus blood group, Sickle cell disease (SCD) and Diabetes mellitus (DM) was investigated in Okwe, Asaba, Delta State and Ihiala, Anambra State,Nigeria. 100 proven cases of sickle cell patients (HBSS) from the sickle cell clinic in the General Hospital, Okwe, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria, were studied. 200 normal individuals, 100 with genotype AA and 100 with genotype AS were taken as control for comparison from Okwe town. Furthermore, 50 proven cases of adults diabetic mellitus type2 from the diabetic clinic of our Lady’s of Lourdes Hospital Ihiala, Anambra State were studied. Samples of 50 normal adult individuals were taken from the Hospital town as control for comparison. In the ABO/Rhesus blood group and SCD, the result showed that there was a correlation between ABO/Rhesus blood group and sickle cell disease (p<0.05). It was also observed that blood group O has the highest frequency distribution among the sicklers (63%), followed by blood group B (20%), then blood group A (17%), the least was AB blood group with O% distribution. For Rhesus blood system, the prevalence of Rh positive and Rh negative was studied against the hemoglobin genotypes. Rh positive was 96%for SS, 74% for AA, and 92% for AS. Rh negative was 4% for SS, 26%for AA and 8% for AS. This showed that Rh positive has the highest prevalence in SS while Rh negative has the lowest prevalence in SS,[P ABORhesus blood group and DM, there was no correlation between ABO/Rhesus blood group and adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (P>0.05). It was also observed that blood group O (78%) was most commonly distributed in diabetes mellitus type2, followed by A (22%), blood group 0 (0%) and AB (0%) did not show any incidence of type2 diabetes mellitus. When Rh positive and Rh negative where matched against DM and the control, Rh positive was 94% in DM and 88% in control (P>0.05). Rh negative was 6% in DM and 12% in control, (P>0.05). It was observed that Rh positive was more in DM than the control, and Rh negative was more in control than in DM patient. Therefore, correlation between ABO/Rhesus blood group and diabetes mellitus type 2 was not proven. It is accordingly, concluded that ABO/Rhesus blood group has positive correlation with sickle cell disease and fell short of such correlation with diabetes mellitus.


Immunohistochemical Detection of FOXP3 Shows Stimulatory Effect of Metformin on Thymus Regulatory T-Cells in Type 2 Diabetic Mice  


Sameh S. Akkila*, Mustafa M. Ibraheem, Ahmed F. Hameed


Metformin is an adjuvant drug used in the treatment of obesity and diabetes, two conditions associated with stress and chronic inflammation that affects thymus structure and function. Recent evidence suggests a complex role of metformin in thymic homeostasis. The study was designed to develop an animal model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and treat it with metformin to evaluate its effects on the thymus. In addition, its general effects on body weight and blood glucose level were also investigated. Over a period of 6 weeks, 30 albino male mice (4-5 weeks) were fed either regular chow (control group, N=10) or high fat diet (obese group). The obese group was then subjected to low dose streptozotocin induction of diabetes and divided into two subgroups, one of which was treated with metformin (N=10) while the other was not (N=10). Body weight, random blood sugar, relative thymus weight were recorded. Thymic tissue sections were stained with H & E to study general histology and with single immunohistochemical stain to detect regulatory T-cell using FOXP3 marker. Thymic corticomedullary ratio and regulator cell frequency were calculated. Metformin was successful in reducing body weight and blood glucose levels in treated animals. The thymus had higher relative weight and less cortical cellularity but more frequently counted regulatory cells. Untreated animals showed signs of thymic involution but increased corticomedullary ration in response to reduced regulator cell counts. Metformin has both direct and indirect effects in correcting metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity and diabetes. These effects are anti-inflammatory and may be responsible for stimulation of thymic immunosuppressive cells. Contrariwise, obesity and diabetes have detrimental effects on thymus structure and homeostasis.


Phytochemical and Biochemical Studies of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)


Amal M. El-Feky1 and Wael M. Aboulthana2 

1Pharmacognosy Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Biochemistry Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt 


Salvia is one of the major genuses belonging to Lamiaceae family. It is historically well known by its therapeutic applications. Salvia officinalis L. is a common herbal plant known as common sage. Itis used in the food and beverage industries due to its powerful antimicrobial activity against several gram positive and negative bacteria. It contains high percentage of the essential oil due to the presence of external glandular structures that produce volatile oil. It is rich in the biologically active constituents which are represented mainly by polyphenolic compounds. These phenolic compounds are characterized by presence of one or more aromatic rings with one or more hydroxyl groups. The previous studies showed that water extract of this plant prevented growth of colorectal cancer and human prostate carcinoma cells. This might refer to its ability to decrease the tissue lesions occurred as a result of oxidative stress. It showed radioprotective effect against irradiation through lowering lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and NO in brain tissue and elevating activities of the antioxidant enzymes. It showed antiinflammatory effects by reducing marrow acute phase response and NO synthesis. Also, it showed antagonistic effect against Aluminum neurotoxicity due to reducing the oxidative stress and improving the antioxidant status and particularly by inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase activity.


Trends in the Incidence of Cancer in Eritrean Hospitals andEritrean National Health Laboratory 2000-2010


Hagos Adom1+, Daniel Tesfamichael1+, Hawaz Weldu1+, Mengisteab Hailemichael1+, Dawit Eman1, TesfamariamMehari2, Gebrehiwet Semere3, Faisal M. Fadlelmola1,4,*

1Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara-8566, Eritrea

2Pathology Department, ENHL, Asmara-P.O. Box-1686, Eritrea

3Oncology Department, Orotta Referral Hospital, Asmara-P.O.Box-5825, Eritrea

4Centre for Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum-321, Sudan

+ - The first four authors contributed equally to this work


Eritrea is one of the developing countries located in the Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa. Eritrea is experiencing a growing cancer problem, but little is presently known on tumor patterns, cancer epidemiology and ethnic or environmental cancer risk factors. A retrospective study was carried out on the cancer incidence in hospitals of Eritrea and Eritrean National Health Laboratory (ENHL) from 2000 to 2010 using data recorded from the Management Information System (MIS) in ENHL that recorded all cancer cases from across the country. The main objectives of this study were to review the current status of knowledge, summarizing local data, as well as to provide the first baseline data on the cancer incidence in Eritrea. This study was carried out retrospectively and quantitatively by collecting, abstracting, analyzing, coding and interpreting of data recorded in MIS at ENHL in the eleven years of study using CanReg5 software. Generally 19,636 numbers of cases were confirmed by cytology and histology recorded at MIS through the year of 2000 to 2010; out of these 9,482 cases were positive for cancer. From the total positive cancer cases, 39.18% were males and 60.82% were females. The age standardized rate for all cancers in Eritrean hospitals and ENHL from 2000 to 2010 both in men and women combined were 20.3 per 100,000.The rate was higher in women 11.2 per 100,000 than men 9.1 per 100,000. In general, it can be concluded from this research that the incidence of cancer in Eritrean hospitals and ENHL were increased annually from 2000 to 2010, especially in females.The trend of the incidence is increasing with age, therefore the gradual aging of the population might increase the number of cancer cases in Eritrea.


Anti-oxidant Activity of Novel Compound (AVO) Derived from L-arginine 


Orass S. Kahyoon, Mohammed A. AL-Diwan, Wasfi A. Al-Masoudi

Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Chemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, University ofBasra, Iraq


The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of AVO in alleviating Hematological and serum biochemical alterations induced by cadmium chloride toxicity in rats. 32 adult male rats were divided in to 4 groups (8 rats each for each group: Control group received normal saline by i.p injection and served as a control. Treated group I received AVO daily at 72 mg/kg body weight (B.W.) by ip injection. Treated group II administered CdCl2 daily at dose 225 mg/kg B.W. by i.p injection. Treated group III administered of CdCl2 daily at a dose of 225 mg/kg B.W. by i.p injection and after one hour of CdCl2   administration the treated rats given the new compound AVO at dose 72 mg/kg B.W. by i.p injection. The obtained results indicated that cadmium chloride possesses a deleterious effect on blood cytology, induce oxidative damage, hepato-renal dysfunction, increase of MDA and cause clear changes on the sexual hormone. The administration of AVO with cadmium chloride minimized the hazard effects of cadmium chloride, it improved RBCs count, PCV, Hb concentration ,total and differential WBCs count and blood indices Diminished the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA).Moreover, it ameliorates the activities of AST, ALT, ALP lipid profiles, bilirubin, urea, uric acid, protein and glucose. 


Role of Persea americana and Vitamin E in Reducing the Tendency for Prostate Cancer Growth


Shafe OM, Seriki AS*, Adebayo OF, Idachaba OS

Department of Human Physiology, College of Medicine, Bingham University, Karu-900110, Nigeria


Persea Americana Avocado is traditionally used for the treatment of various health problems. With its wide claim of medicinal benefits, it is imperative to determine the effects of the extract on some biochemical parameters of the male wistar rats and its tendency to reduce prostate cancer growth. It’s also to determine the extract effect on the histology of the reproductive organs (testes) of the rats. Twenty-four (24) male wistar rats of an average weight of 170g were used for the experiment. The rats were divided into four groups (n=6): Group 1 (control), group II (150mg/kg of avocado extract), group III (300mg/kg of avocado extract, and group IV (200mg/kg of Vitamin E). The administration was for 56 days, and on the 57th day all the animals were sacrificed and their testes harvested. The histology and enzyme histochemistry of the testes conducted. There was a significant decrease in vitamin Glucose-6-phospodehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in rats of groups II and III compared to the control group. Prostatic acid phosphotase (P-AcP) also significantly decreased in groups II and III when compared with the group IV. Avocado and Vitamin E increased body weight and reduce oxidative stress. It also decreased LDH and P-AcP levels in the body, and consequently reducing tendency for cancerous cells growth, and particularly prostate cancer. However, unlike Vitamin E which improved on spermatogenesis, Avocado exert negatively on testicular architecture, germ cells and spermatogenesis.


Evaluation of Management Outcome of Adolescent Type-1 Diabetes Patients in Selected Clinics in Calabar, Nigeria


Nwangwa JN1, Seriki SA2*, Nyoro IK1, Lelei SA1

Department of Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Department of Human Physiology, College of Medicine, Bingham University, Karu – 900110, Nigeria


Diabetes mellitus (DM), is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels resulting from defects in inulin absorption over a prolonged period. This research was carried out to evaluate the management outcome in Type-1 diabetes adolescents in Calabar, Nigeria. Nineteen (19) diabetic adolescent patients attending selected clinics in Calabar and another 19 age-and-sex matched healthy adolescents were recruited for this research. Glycaemic control was assessed using fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and Glycated haemoglobin concentration (HbAic%). Anthropometric parameters (height, weight, BMI) in adolescent Diabetes mellitus (DM) and control groups were also measured. Blood pressure in diabetic and control subjects were equally measured. Mean age of diabetic male and female were not statistically significant compared with male and female control groups. Average age of onset of illness in diabetic males and females were also not significant, and the same result was observed in duration of illness. Findings revealed that baseline fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbAIC%) values of the diabetic adolescents were significantly (P<0.001) higher than values in control group. There was a significant (P<0.01) decrees in anthropometric parameters of diabetics compared with controls. Significant negative correlation was observed between father’s educational status and FBG (r= -0.546*) and negative correlation in glycated haemoglobin (HbAIC %)  (r= -0.464*) levels in diabetic group.  Glycated haemoglobin appeared to be a very dependable marker for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in adolescents. Adolescent female diabetics have better management outcome compared to males. Combined therapy and insulin therapy resulted in improved glycaemic control and general wellbeing.    


Evaluation of Long Term Alcohol Consumption on Gastric Acid Secretion and the Histomorphometry of the Stomach in Adult Male Wistar Rats


Ese C. Adegor1*,Anthony E. Ojieh1,Ovocity Eghworo1, Lawrence O. Ewhre2, Tarela M.E. Daubry1, Christopher U. Onyekpe2


This study was aimed at investigating to check the effects of long term consumption of varying concentrations of alcohol on gastric acid secretions and the histomorphometry of the stomach of adult male Wistar rats, and the possible ameliorative effect of omega-3 fish oil. Eighty (80) adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-230 gm were used. The rats were divided into eight groups containing ten (10) rats each group. Group I served as the control; Groups II, III and IV were given 5%, 20% and 40% alcohol respectively; Groups V, VI and VII were given 5% alcohol+Omega-3 fish oil; 20% alcohol+Omega-3 fish oil and 40% alcohol+Omega-3 fish oil, respectively. The Group VIII was administered Omega-3 fish oil alone. The alcohol was given at a dose of 0.005 ml/g body weight once daily using an orogastric canular. The Omega-3 fish oil was given at a dose of 0.2 ml/g body weight. Alcohol administration lasted for twelve weeks, at the end of which the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Gastric secretions were estimated, and tissues samples from the stomach collected for histomorphometric studies. The results showed that 20% alcohol caused a significant increase in gastric acid secretion when compared with the control and omega-3 only group. 40% and omega-3 group caused a decrease in gastric acid secretion when compared with the control. The histomorphometry of the stomach revealed a decrease in parietal cell and mucous cell count with increasing alcohol concentrations. Omega-3 administration showed only mild amelioration to these digestive alterations.


Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Polyherbal Formulation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats


Arijit Chaudhuri, Shalini Sharma 

Department of Pharmacy, Manav Bharti University, Solan- 173229, Himachal Pradesh, India


This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of polyherbal formulation containing varied concentration of Phyllanthus emblica andAnnona squamosa leaves extract in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. The polyherbal formulation (HF1 and HF2) were administered orally in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After the administration of polyherbal formulation, blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals and it was found that they were significant lowered. The effect of polyherbal formualtion on induced hyperlipidemia was analyzed where the fraction significantly lowered the elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) level while increased the High density lipoprotein (HDL). Glibenclamide was used as a standard drug at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg body weight. The outcomes of results exhibited that HF2 has significant antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced rats compared to HF1.