Determination of Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection Among the Pregnant Women with Lower Abdominal Pain


Chandra Bala Sekharan1*, Devarajan Dinesh Kumar2, Koneru Ratna Kumari1, Cecilia Alphonce Joachim1

1Department of Biochemistry, International Medical and Technological University, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania - 77594

2Department of Anatomy, International Medical and Technological University, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania - 77594


The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection among the pregnant women with lower abdominal pain and its aetiological micro-organism. Cross sectional study was done at Mount meru hospital laboratory, Arusha, Tanzania.  225 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Levolosi hospital (Arusha, Tazania) were enrolled. To diagnose urinary tract infection in the enrolled participants, mid stream urine was collected and culture on Macconkey agar media and blood agar media. Urine analysis was done using dipstick test, urine microscopy and biochemical tests. The prevalence of urinary tract infection was found to be 31.6%.  High incidence of infection was found in 33-40 years age group (41.6%). The incidence of infection was high in the third trimester of pregnancy compared to first and second trimester. The prevalence of infection is more in participants who had past history of infection. The bacterial pathogens isolated include E.coli (40.8%), Staphylococcus species (30.0%), Klebsiella species (14.1%), Proteus species (11.3%), Citrobacter species (1.4%) and Enterobacter species (1.4%). Diagnosis of urinary tract infection in pregnant women during all antenatal visits should be considered a vital care in the community. This helps to keep away from complications in pregnancy at an early stage. 


Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Fosfomycin in Various Clinical Isolates


Humaira Zafar1*,  Nouman Noor2, Kiran Tauseef Bukhari3, Sadaf Humayun2, Noor Khan Lakhnana4

1Department of Microbiology, Al Nafees Medical College & Hospital, Islamabad

2Department of Dentistry, Rawal Dental College, Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad

3Department of Haematology, Al Nafees Medical College & Hospital, Islamabad

4Department of Pathology, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad.


To identify the susceptibility pattern of Fosfomycin in various clinical isolates by estimating the frequency in terms of percentages. A convenient sampling technique was adopted for study proceedings. Total 748(n) specimens for culture and sensitivity were received in the microbiology section of pathology department. Out of these 748(n) specimens, positive cultures were seen in 144(n). For culture and sensitivity proceedings, the recommended CLSI – 2014 (clinical and laboratory standard institute) guidelines were followed. The bacterial isolation was done by biochemical tests. The zone diameter of >16 mm for 50µgm fosfomycin disc was considered as sensitive zone. While <15-12mm was considered as intermittent one and


Natural Products Effective for Management of Cancer - Review


Arijit Chaudhuri*, Shalini Sharma

Department of Pharmacy, Manav Bharti University, Solan- 173229, Himachal Pradesh, India


Cancer is one of the foremost causes of death and worldwide the numbers of cases of cancer are increasing progressively. Presently numerous medicines existing in the market to treat the various types of cancer but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe. The synthetic drugs are associated with huge adverse effects and patient also vanish immune system. Natural products have been the backbone and proved effective and safe in the treatment and management of cancers. Natural products remain an important source of new drugs, new drug leads and new chemical entities. The plant based drug discovery resulted mainly in the development of anticancer agents including plants, marine organisms and micro-organisms sources. Consequently, natural products are likely to deliver numerous of the chief structures with potent anticancer activity. These novel compounds enhanced anticancer activity by transforming in suitable dosage form. In this review, we emphasized the natural products traditionally used as anti-cancer agents and the new plant species scientifically validated for the anticancer activity.  


Aroma Profile of Essential Oils of Solenostemon monostachyus P. Beauv from Nigeria


Emmanuel E. Essien1,3*, Paul S. Thomas2, Mohammad I. Choudhary3

1Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo 520101, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo 520101, Nigeria

3Hussain Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan


This study was conducted to evaluate the volatile oils constituents of Solenostemon monostachyus P. Beauv, an aromatic non-conventional vegetable. The essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from leaves, stem, floral and aerial parts of S. monostachyus (P.Beauv.) Briq. were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of fifteen constituents were identified and characterized by the high amount of sesquiterpenoid (43.13-91.21%). The leaf oil comprised mainly of β-caryophyllene (71.42%), α-caryophyllene (7.0%), 1-octen-3-ol (6.96%) and caryophyllene oxide (6.67%); the stem oil consisted of β-caryophyllene (46.75%), α-caryophyllene (20.22%), caryophyllene oxide (10.45%) and 1-octen-3-ol (10.31%); the predominant compounds in the floral oil were 1-octen-3-ol (40.24%), β-caryophyllene (18.94%) and α-caryophyllene (16.98%); while β-caryophyllene (27.43%), caryophyllene oxide (24.83%) and α-caryophyllene (12.9%) were the abundant components of the aerial oil. The chemical composition of S. monostachyus essential oils from Nigeria is reported for the first time.


Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Hypertensive Patients towards Hypertension in a Secondary Health Care Facility in Delta State


Aghoja OC1*, Okinedo PO1, Odili VU2

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University Abraka, PMB 1 Abraka,   Delta State, Nigeria

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria


Developing countries undergoing epidemiological transition face the double burden of communicable and non communicable diseases.  Although safe and effective drugs and evidence- based treatment guidelines are available, the management of hypertension remains sub-optimal. This was a descriptive prospective study to determine the level of knowledge, practice and attitude (KAP) of hypertensive patients receiving medical care at Central Hospital Sapele towards hypertension. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to 330 hypertensive patients, and the KAP of the patients assessed. Females 58.5% were more represented than males 41.5%. Respondents aged 65 and over were more represented (36.4%). A majority (43.3%) were unemployed, 58.8% were married and majority (51.2%) had a tertiary level of education. 8.8% were smokers while 25.5% alcoholics. Majority (53.3%) had family history of hypertension and most (36.7%) of them have had hypertension for over 5 years. 45.5% reported the presence of one or more co-morbidity of which diabetes mellitus (43.3%) was found to be the most co-morbid condition. Age, occupation, marital status and duration of hypertension were significantly related to KPA, p< 0.05. Only 53.3% reported satisfaction. Respondents demonstrated good knowledge and attitude but very good practice towards hypertension. The most prevalent co-morbid condition with hypertension was found to be diabetes mellitus. Majority of the respondents were satisfied with the level of care received from this institution.


Study Effect of Evening Primrose Oil Supplement on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Associated Metabolic Parameters 


Manal Khalid Abdulridha1Ù­, Mustafa Safaa Hussain2, Mahmood Shaker Khudhair3

 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy/College of Pharmacy/Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-10001, Iraq

2AL-Kadhimiyah hospital, Ministry of health, Baghdad-10001, Iraq

3Consultant Endocrenologist, Department of Internal medicine /College of Medicine/Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-10001, Iraq


Natural products are reported to be useful for controlling or preventing T2DM as an anti-inflammatory, AMPK activators, insulin secretion stimulators, alpha-glucosidase / disaccharidase or amylase inhibitors. Evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis) is a substantial source of omega-6 essential fatty acids, mostly gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). The activity of Δ-6-desaturase enzyme responsible to convert linolenic acid (LA) to forms GLA is compromised in patients with type 2 diabetes. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of evening primrose oil in amelioration metabolic parameters of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty six overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Thirteen patients received metformin 500 mg tablets twice daily alone (as a conventional therapy) for 3 month therapy, and 13 patients received metformin 500 mg plus evening primrose oil 2 gm capsule twice daily. Serum fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting serum insulin (FSI) was measured. Insulin resistance and β-cell function was determined by using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA).  There was statistically significant elevation in baseline level of fasting serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and in both patient groups 1 and 2 compared to control subjects, (P< 0.001). High reduction in these parameters post treatment was found in both patient groups compared to pre treatment level, significantly with fasting serum insulin in group 2 patients (P< 0.001). Inversely, lower levels were seen in HDL-C, HOMA-B, significantly elevated post treatment in both groups. No difference was found in triglyceride and VLDL-C in both patient groups compared to control subjects, but significantly reduced post treatment.In conclusion, early intervention with natural oil rich in gamma linolenic acid with traditional hypoglycemic drugs can improve therapeutic outcome and represent a promising strategy to slow the progression of diabetes complications.


Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Centipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea Leaves 


Ashish Sarkar1*, Vijay Dutt Tripathi2, Ram Kumar Sahu3, Erwin Martinez Faller4

1Institute of Pharmacy, HCPG College, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

2Sagar Institute of Technology, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

3Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

4School of Pharmacy, Management & Science University, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


Centipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea are used as traditional medicinal plant for ailment of various diseases. The present study was aimed to evaluate the Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical screening ofCentipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea. The Pharmacognostic evaluation (total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, water soluble extractive and alcohol soluble extractive) and fluorescence analysis of leaves powder were performed. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out of the crude extracts of Centipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea leaves using solvents of different polarity. The Pharmacognostic characters of Centipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea have been done for standardization of crude drug. The results of preliminary phytochemical revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, glycosides, fats and carbohydrates in Centipeda minima and Bauhinia purpurea leaves.These studies provided referential information in regard to its identification parameters assumed significantly in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs in present scenario of lack of regulatory laws to control quality of herbal drugs.


Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Psoralea corylifolia seeds


Nelofar Gulam Nabi*, Mukta Shrivastava

Govt. Maharani Laxmi Bai Girls` P.G. (Autonomous) College, Bhopal (M.P)-462002, India


Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds, which are widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Flavonoids of different classes exhibited various pharmacological and biological activities. The present study was undertaken to investigate the total flavonoids and antioxidant effect of Psoralea corylifolia seeds. The ethanol extract of Psoralea corylifolia seeds were prepared and performed its phytochemical screening. The total flavonoids and polyphenol were investigated to quantify the presence of polyphenol compounds. The 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazil stable radical (DPPH) and Superoxide scavenging radical were used to determine extract antioxidant activity. The concentrations of flavonoids and polyphenol in ethanol extract of Psoralea corylifolia seeds were 60.63 QE. mg/gm and 74.35 GAE mg/gm respectively. The extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest IC50 - value for DPPH and Superoxide scavenging. The IC50 value for DPPH and Superoxide scavenging were 166.61 μg/ml and 177.69 μg/ml respectively. The strongest antioxidant activity of ethanol extract could be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenols.