Phytopharmacological Potentials and Micropropagation of Aegle marmelos – A Review


Asha Gupta1*, Tessy Thomas1, Shagufta Khan2

1Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Sehore (MP)- 466001, India

2GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India


Aegle marmelos, a popular medicinal plant and is used in traditional medicine to treat numerous ailments. Aegle marmelos are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and other conventional medical systems. Whole parts of the plant are rich in secondary metabolites, which impart miraculous medicinal uses to the plant. The bioactive constituents isolated from lupeol, sitosterol, amyrin, flavanoids (mainly rutin), coumarins, including aegeline, marmesin, umbelliferone etc. The extracts of different parts of plant used as antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antidiabetes, analgesic, antipyretic, diuretic, immunomodulators, nephroprotective, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities. Employment of techniques such as cell and tissue culture would provide means of rapid propagation and conservation of the plant species and, from the point of view of phytochemistry, give scope for enhancement of the quality and quantity of the bioactive secondary metabolites occurring in the plant. However, more advanced research is warranted to determine the activities of bioactive compounds in vitro and in vivo, establish their underlying mechanisms of action and commence the process of clinical research. This review consists all the updated information about secondary metabolites, medicinal properties and tissue culture studies on Aegle marmelos.


Apigenin and Quercetin: Potential Therapeutic Challenging Effective Against in Alzheimer’s Disease


Manmohan S. Jangdey1­, Anshita Gupta1  Khomendra Sarwa2

1University Institute of Pharmacy, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C. G.) 492001, India

2Girls Polytechnic college Baran bazar, Raipur (C. G.) 492001, India


Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is an accelerating neurodegenerative disorder, dementia in the world. Current treatments for Alzheimer’s disease primarily focus on enhancement of cholinergic transmission & leading to neuronal dysfunction and loss in the brain. Flavonoid bioactive compounds are the major role for the designer of a new generation of therapeutic agents that are clinically effective in treating neurodegenerative diseases. Apigenin & quercetin are attractive biomarkers in this regards which has been epidemiological studies height a Neuroprotective and related to a lower risk of developing dementia or gradual decline its progressive.  The continuing investigation of the potential preventive activity of quercetin and apigenin should be evaluated in long-term exposure clinical trials, using preparations with high bioavailability and promising to yield a possible remedy for this pervasive disease. Thus, the aim of the review, we analyzed the enhancing effects of apigenin and quercetin and discuss the potential of these compounds for Alzheimer’s disease prevention and treatment.


Quantification of Phytoconstituents and Isolation of Flavonoids from Thespesia populnea Bark Extracts


Manisha Kothari*, D. K. Jain 

SSL Jain PG College, Vidisha (MP)-464001, India


Flavonoids scavenged the free radicals and protect body from various diseases. The various types of flavonoids are present in the plants. More than 6000 flavonoids have been identified and still research requires to explore unidentified flavonoids. Hence, it was planned to to isolate and characterized the novel flavonoids present in bark of Thespesia populnea. In addition the quantification of phytoconstituents present in Thespesia populnea bark extract was also investigated. The petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extract of barks were prepared. All the extracts were screened to quantify the total alkaloid, total polyphenol and total flavonol content. The ethanol extract was processed for column chromatography for isolation and characterization of flavonoids. The outcomes of total alkaloid exhibited present in chloroform, acetone and ethanol extract; while the total polyphenol and total flavonol were present in acetone, ethanol and aqueous extract. The ethanol extracts exhibited highest amount of polyphenol and flavonoids content compared to other extracts. The nine fractions (F1 to F9) were isolated from the ethanol extract of Thespesia populnea. The compound A and compound B were obtained after rechromatography. On the basis of various spectroscopic data, compound A and B isolated from Thespesia populnea extract were identified as 3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one and 2,2’-Trimethoxy-6,8-Dihydroxy-Isoflavone, respectively.


Study and Reporting of Adverse Drug Reaction Patterns Among Organ Transplant Patients Receiving Tacrolimus Therapy in a Real World Post-Marketing Experience


Shobharam Sahu*1, Poonam Rishishwar1, Chhaya Rathod2

1Faculty of Pharmaceutical science,Sri Venkateshwara University, Gajraula, UP, India

2Rajiv Gandhi college of Pharmacy, Nautanwa-Maharajganj, UP, India


With the availability of many immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of solid organ transplantation increase to a life span of patients who is receiving tacrolimus separately for End Stage of liver, heart and lung, kidney. But after all success of solid organ transplantation is purely dependent on proper course of immunosuppressive therapy. Tacrolimus is lactones antibiotic isolated from the fermentation of streptomyces tstkubaeis. This calcineurin inhibitor widely used for its immunosuppressive properties to increase patient survival and prevent graft function, organ rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in transplant patients suppresses to enzyme for the growth of B cells and T cells.  It was first approved for use to prevent graft rejection in 1994 for liver transplantation and in 1997 for kidney transplantation. The outcomes of this drug have varied due to differences in induction and maintenance therapy, drug dosing and monitoring. The aim of this study of an assessment and reporting of adverse drug reaction was to analyze the case reports of literature critically, conducted to monitor and evaluated the adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of immunosuppressive drug regimens, its causality, severity in therapy which is used various organ transplant patients and to document the pharmacotherapeutic actions taken for its management.


Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa Oil


Arif Ahmad Rather*, Kirti Jain

Department of Botany, Govt. Science and Commerce College, Benazeer, Bhopal (M.P.), 462001, India


Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a consequence of accumulation of free radicals in the body. The various researches are going on globally directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. We planned to investigate the preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oil. The yield of oil of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa were 21.5% and 27.3%, respectively. Phytochemical screening was performed by using standard methods. The in vitro antioxidant study was done for Nigella sativaand Allium cepa oil by using hydrogen-donating activity, superoxide scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and reducing power assay. The result of phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, steroids and fats in Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oil. The findings of DPPH, superoxide, reducing power and H2O2 radical scavenging activity exhibited that the oil of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa showed moderately to strongly free radical scavenging activity. Hence Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oil can play a major role in alleviating the number of oxidative stress by reducing the oxidative damage to cellular component caused by Reactive oxygen species (ROS).


Multi-particulate Drug Delivery  Systems of Fenofibric Acid: Optimization of Formulation Using Statistical Experimental Design


Bala Vishnu Priya Mukkala1*, Murthy T.E.G.K2, Prameela Rani Avula3 

1Formulation research and development, RA Chem Pharma Ltd, Hyderabad-500076, Telangana, India

2Department of pharmaceutics, Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, Guntur-522101, Andhra Pradesh, India

3Department of pharmaceutics, Acharya Nagajuna University, Guntur-522510, Andhra Pradesh, India


The objective of the present research work was to develop a multi-particulate modified release system of Fenofibric acid using Wurster (Bottom spray fluid bed coating) process. Impact of various formulation variables was assessed by using statistical interpretation such as ANOVA. A 33 (three factor, three level) face centered central composite design was employed to study the effect of independent variables (concentration of ER Polymer, plasticizer and pore former), on dependent variables (drug release at 2.5th h & 6th h). Optimization of the formulation variables was done by fitting experimental data to the software program (Design Expert). The design space for formulation variables was developed. Fabricated pellets were characterized for various physico-chemical parameters. In vitro release data of the optimized formulation was fitted into various kinetic equations. The optimized formulation showed a desired  drug release at both 2.5th h and 6th h as 17.5 ± 2.28% & 87.1 ± 0.75% respectively. The drug release from the capsules followed first order kinetics and controlled by non fickian transport. The information acquired in this study recommends that the multi-particulates of Fenofibric acid can be effectively intended to give a delayed  release of Fenofibric acid and thus enhanced bioavailability.


Evaluation of the Mycochemical and Proximate Composition of Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus VAR Florida, (MONT) Singer. and P. pulmonarius (FR) QUEL) Grown on Bark of Gmelina arborea Roxb.,Straw of Saccharum officinarum L.and Pods of Delonix regia (BOJ. Ex Hook.) RAF


Okwulehie I. C.1, Oti, V. O.1, Ikechukwu G. C.2*

1Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P. M. B 7267 Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P. M. B 7267 Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria


Mushrooms are fungal fruit-bodies which have over successive years served as suitable source of protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. The fruit-bodies derive their nutrients from varieties of substrates including agro-wastes. This study was conducted to evaluate the potentials of using the pods of Delonix regia, straws of Saccharum officinarum and bark of Gmelina arborea in the production of nutritionally-rich edible oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius. The experiment was carried out in three replicates in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. The results of the investigations were analysed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the means were separated using Least Significant Different (LSD) tool. The result of the myco-chemical analysis shows that fruit-bodies of P. ostreatus var florida, produced in Saccharum officinale straw, yielded the higher alkaloids (3.93±0.010g/100g) than those produced in Gmelina+Delonix (3.84±0.025g/100g) and S. officinale+D. regia , (3.77±0.03g/100g). The trend was the same with Flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phenols from S. officinale, G. aborea + D. regia and S. officinale + D. regia, and D. regia. Pleurotus pulmonarius from the substrates contained low concentration of alkaloids but higher concentration of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phenols. Generally the substrates yielded fruit-bodies that are rich in protein. However those from S. officinale + D. regia appeared richer in protein (28.44±0.03g/100g). The substrates showed encouraging potentials for use in the production of nutritionally-rich edible P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius, with S. officinale + D. regia standing out as a more likely preferred substrates. There appears to be a synergism between the substrates of S. officinale and D. regia, since the mean of their individual performance is less than their performance when combined.


Study on Antimicrobial Potential of Selected Non-antibiotics and its Interaction with Conventional Antibiotics


Michael Hadera1, Selam Mehari1, N. Saleem Basha1*, Nebyu D. Amha1 and Yacob Berhane2

1Pharmaceutics Unit, School of Pharmacy, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, P.O Box.8566, Eritrea, North East Africa

2Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Professions, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, P.O Box.8566, Eritrea,     North East Africa


The escalating levels of antimicrobial drug resistance render it indispensable to explore newer drugs with lesser degrees of toxicity and with fewer chances of developing resistance. Various studies on the discovery of novel antimicrobials have found different degrees of antimicrobial activity in commonly used medicines with diverse pharmacological actions i.e., non-antibiotics. The present work aimed to describe qualitatively and quantitatively in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs i.e., Acetyl salicylic acid, Methyldopa, Propranolol and Fluoxetine alone and in combination with three conventional antimicrobial drugs i.e., Ciprofloxacin, Benzyl penicillin, and Fluconazole against three standard test microorganisms, i.e., E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. Agar well diffusion method was used for testing antimicrobial sensitivity, while the drug interaction was estimated using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index) obtained from checkerboard broth dilution method.  All the four non-antibiotics tested for antimicrobial activity showed activity against at least one tested microorganism, whereas fluoxetine showed antimicrobial activity against all tested organisms. Combined effect of fluconazole + fluoxetine and fluconazole + propranolol against C. albicans showed synergistic activity based on the FICindex value obtained i.e., 0.25 and 0.1875, respectively. Based on the results, study suggests that fluoxetine among the other non-antibiotics has a potential for being developed into an effective antimicrobial agent. However, the study needs to be extended in the future to determine the in vivo antimicrobial activity.