Standardization of Protocol for in vitro Micropropagation of Phyllanthus niruri:An Important Medicinal Plant


Aarti Patel1*, Pratibha Singh1, Shagufta Khan2

1Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls PG Autonomous College, Bhopal (M.P.)-462016, India

2GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India


An efficient regeneration protocol for Phyllanthus niruriwas developed using nodal explants on MS medium augmented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The highest frequency (85.5%) of bud break and shoot induction was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP along with 0.5 mg/l IBA with the formation of 4.2±0.5 number of shoots having length of 3.0±0.1 centimeters within ten days.  MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l Kinetin in combination with NAA (0.5 mg/L) showed the highest percentage (80.0%) shoot multiplicationwith an average of 9.0±0.7 adventitious shoots, directly from the explants, without any callus formation. Shoots formed were remarkable healthy and achieved the length of 10.0±0.5 centimeters in 25 days. Elongated shoots were rooted best on MS medium with 1.0 mg/l IBA producing maximum number of roots with 85% response with average length 8.0±0.3 cm within 15 days. The plantlets were gradually acclimatized and successfully transferred to field condition with 98% survival rate after rooting. The standardized protocol reported in this study may help in large scale propagation of this plant species which is currently exploited from the nature.


Study Effect of Camphor fumes on the Pulmonary Functions


Mmehibe F O1, Alagwu D N2, Ezekwe A S2, Nwankwo A A1, Alagwu E A2

1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Abia State University, PMB 2000 Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

2Department  of Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Medicine ,Imo State University PMB 2000, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria


Effect of occupational exposure to  camphor fumes on the pulmonary function was studied using one hundred (100) selected Igbo women working in camphor industry in Aba,Abia State, Sought East Nigeria, exposed to camphor fumes for over 15years (test subjects). They were compared with age, body weight and height marched control who were mostly house wives and civil servants not exposed to any known fumes or air pollutants and with no history of chest infections or spinal cord injury. Lung function indices investigated to include  Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume per second (FEV1),ration of FEV1/FVC expressed as percentage (FEV1%)  and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). The study which lasted for 4 months, was carried out using a Vitalograph Spirometer and Peak  Expiratory Flow Meter. Results obtained  showed  statistically significant reduction in lung function indices (FVC,FEV1 and PEFR)  for workers exposed to camphor  fumes (test)  compared to the  control subjects(P<0.001).  However,FEV1% in the Test group was 89.1% compared with the control (98.0%).Although both groups appeared normal and within normal values with no statistical difference but in some lung diseases like pulmonary fibrosis and other similar lung conditions,FEV1% may  appear normal, yet there is derangement  in pulmonary  functions. This is not the case in this present study which showed restrictive pattern of lung defect as shown by the significant statistical results. The result of mean values of anthropometric parameters which included age, height, body weight and body mass index obtained showed that  the test and control subjects were statistically not significant when compared (P>0.05). It was not possible to determine the effects of environmental factors like carbon dioxide (CO2) carbon monoxide (CO) and other gaseous fumes emitted during the processing period. It is therefore concluded that camphor fumes contributed significantly to the disorder observed in this study.


Food Chemicals Induces Toxic Effect on Health: Overview


Mukta Sharma1, Anupama Rajput1*, Chhaya Rathod2,  Shobharam Sahu2

1Department of Chemistry, FET, MRIIRS, Faridabad-121001, India

2Rajiv Gandhi college of Pharmacy, Nautanwa-Maharajganj, UP-273164,India


Production of food and its preservation for long time may involve addition of chemicals. Hence, chemical substances can play an important role in food production and preservation. For.e.g. the additives in the food prolong the shelf life of foods; colours, make food more attractive. Flavouring agents like aldehydes make food tastier. Unlike any other industry, agriculture is also a part of industry. The agriculture industry relies heavily on large number of chemicals which may be toxic in nature. Some of these chemicals may get absorbed by our body. Accordingly the use of chemicals involved in production, harvesting (collection), processing, packing, transport, marketing and consumption creates deleterious effect on both human and ecology. Majority of the additives in the food may lead to headache, nausea, weakness and difficulty in breathing. The research on nerve cells has shown these chemicals to cause toxic effect on nerve cells. Although the toxicants cannot be avoided, but the level can be reduced by adopting or making use of organic, sustainable and less toxic options.


Recent Trends in Methods & Calculations of Adjusting Isotonicity


Ajay Kumar*, V.K. Maurya

R. K. Pharmacy College, Kashipur, Surai, Sathiaon, Azamgarh, India


Lachrymal fluid is isotonic with blood having Associate in nursing isotonicity value like that of a 0.9% NaCl resolution. Ideally, Associate in nursing ophthalmic resolution ought to have this isotonicity value; however the attention will tolerate isotonicity values as low as that of a 0.6% NaCl resolution and as high as that of a two NaCl resolution while not marked discomfort. Some ophthalmic solutions square measure essentially hypertonic so as to reinforce absorption and to supply a level of the active ingredients robust enough to exert a prompt and effective action. The quantity of such resolution used is little as a result of, on administration; the dilution with lachryma fluid takes place apace with stripped discomfort from the hyper tonicity that is merely temporary. However, any adjustment toward isotonicity by dilution with tears is negligible wherever massive volumes of solutions square measure used as colliery to clean the eyes. It is, therefore, vital that solutions used for this purpose be around isotonic.


Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Wound Healing Active Compounds From Piper nigrum L. Berries Extract in Malaysia


Chin Mee Wong1*, Jing Jing Ling1, Dr. Paul M. Neilsen2,3, Dr. Siaw San Hwang3

1Department of Research and Development, Malaysian Pepper Board, Lot 1115,  Jalan Utama, Pending Industrial Area, 93450 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

2School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, Bruce Highway, 4702, North Rockhampton, QLD, Australia

3Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology (Sarawak Campus), Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia


The study aimed to further evaluate the wound healing property of P. nigrum L. using bioassay-guided fractionation method. The ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum L. was fractionated in two stages using column chromatography and preparative reversed phase C18 HPLC, respectively. Significant wound healing properties screened using the scratch wound assay was observed through the cell migration assay in fraction number three (PNE3) out of the 14 fractions, exhibiting 36.7% and 43.8% closure of wound gap within 20 hours at concentration of 0.3 and 1.0 µg/mL, respectively. Sub-fractions which were further fractionated from PNE3 showed comparatively reduced wound healing activity using the same bioassay. The sub-fractions were also compared to Piperine, a major component of P. nigrum L. and the results were comparable. This experimental study revealed that Piperine works together with other compounds in P. nigrum L. to improve wound healing as claimed by those home remedy.


Retinal Renin-Angiotensin System Modulators: A Recent Implication for Therapy in Glaucomatous Patients


Wrood S. Al-khfajy1, Ahmed Hamed Jwaid2, Zakariya Al-Mashhadani1

1Mustansiriyah University, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Baghdad, Iraq

2University of Baghdad, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Baghdad, Iraq


Glaucoma is the ultimate commonly acquired optic neuropathy. It signifies a public health challenge since it causes an irreversible blindness. The single known treatment of the disease is decreasing of intraocular pressure (IOP), which has been revealed to lessen glaucoma progress in a diversity of large proportions of clinical trials. Herein in this literature, we briefly define the optical Renin Angiotensin system (RAS) signaling pathway and define the most essential components, physiological actions of major angiotensin peptides, and the Renin Angiotensin system blockers. And discuss the potential implications of their modulators as a new therapeutic target in glaucoma. The literature has shown that the individual RAS modulators including, Angiotensin converting enzymes 1(ACE1) inhibitors, Angiotensin converting enzymes 2 (ACE2) Activators, Angiotensin receptor-1 (AT-1) blocker, and renin inhibitors have a potentials role in modulation of aqueous humour homodynamic, by neuroprotection of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and acceleration of the aqueous humour outflow. In conclusion, RAS modulators have an imperious role in lowering IOP, these compounds will pave the approach for prospect innovation, improvement, and publicizing of novel drugs to treat glaucoma and therefore, aid save vision for millions of people suffering with this slow progressive optic neuropathy.


Correlaton of Primary Dengue Viral Infection With Body Mass Index (BMI)


Dr. Humaira Zafar1*, Dr. Kiran Tauseef2*, Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Lodhi3*

1Assoc Prof. of Pathology, Consultant Microbiologist, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad

2Assoc Prof. of Pathology, Consultant Haematologist Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad

3Professor & Head Deptt of Physiology, Al Nafees Medical College, Islamabad 


The objective of this study is to assess the correlation of body mass index (BMI) with primary dengue viral infection in urban and rural population of district Rawalpindi. Descriptive Cross Sectional Comparative Study. Microbiology Department, Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Affiliated with Rawalpindi Medical College (RMC), Rawalpindi. It was carried out from 1st March 2010 to 30th September 2011. A Stratified random sampling was adopted for 240 (N) subjects residents of urban and rural areas of District Rawalpindi. Urban residents were 144(n) while rural ones were 96(n). The height in meter square and weight in kilogram (kg) were the parameters used to calculate BMI. A 3ml venous blood sample was drawn from each participant for the detection of IgG antibodies against dengue virus by 3rd generation ELISA (Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay). The prevalence of primary Dengue viral infection (DVI) for urban residents   according to the current study is 34.7% (n=50 out of the total 144 subjects).  While 19.7% prevalence of primary DVI (n=19 out of the total 96 subjects) was noted for the residents of Rural strata. The correlation of primary DVI with five categories of BMI amongst urban and rural residents is evaluated by applying chi square test. The p-Value was not found to be significant for any of the five categories of BMI either an urban or rural resident. There is no significant association of primary dengue viral infection with BMI of an individual. 


Extraction and Evaluation of Mangifera indica Gum as a Sustained Release Polymer in Glibenclamide Matrix Tablets


Eman Sharafeldeen Yousif Ahmed*1, Eltayeb Suliman Elamin Abbas1, 2

1Faculty of Pharmacy, University Of Medical Science And Technology (UMST), P.O. Box 12810, Khartoum, Sudan

2Faculty of Pharmacy, Omdurman Islamic University (OIU), P.O. Box 382, Omdurman, Sudan


The aim of this study was to extract and evaluate Mangifera indica gum as sustain release polymer in glibenclamide matrix tablets. by using formal processes the gum of MI was tested for physicochemical and phytochemical properties and the results turned out favorable. The formulations were Intended and evaluated for the various parameters like weight uniformity, friability, content percent, hardness and in-vitro dissolution studies. Moreover, all the matrix tablets formulations were within limits of the Pharmacopoeial standards. After a period of 24 h. in-vitro release studies, the findings of F1, F2, F3 and were 10.89%, 10.69%, 9.99% and 9.55%, respectively. the best sustained drug release among those formulations (of 10.89%) was been achieved with formulation F1 at the end of 24 h, which indicated that the drug release from the matrix tablets was dependent on gum concentration, also MI gum give effective results even with very low concentrations (below 1%).