Gut-Microbiota-Brain-Axis, Leaky Gut, Leaky Brain: Pathophysiology of Second Brain Aging and Alzheimer’s disease- A Neuroscientific Riddle

 

Bilal Ahmad* 

AL Nafees Medical College and Hospital, ISRA University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative illnesses. However, how Gut-Microbiota plays a role in the pathogenesis of AD is not well elucidated. The purpose of this literature review is to summarize and understand the current findings that may elucidate the gut microbiota role in the pathogenesis of AD. A literature review of all the relevant papers knows to the author was conducted. Relevant articles, abstracts and research papers were collected from well-accepted web sources like PubMed, PMC, and Google Scholar. Recent studies have shown that Gut-microbiota has an important role in the progression of AD, via Gut-Microbiota-Brain Axis. The onset of AD supports ‘Hygiene Hypothesis’ which showed that AD may begin in the Gut causing dysbiosis which interferes with intestinal barrier by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and makes it way up to the brain via Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB). Molecular mechanisms lipopolysaccharides and serotonin kynurenine (tryptophan) pathways have a direct association with inflammation, immune system, neurodegeneration, and AD. The studies focusing on the second brain aging of the intestine, dysbiosis, and the ultimate complications of dysbiosis link to the brain via Gut-brain axis. This review will summarize the current findings on gut-microbiota and second brain aging which have crucial role in neurodegeneration and Alzheimers disease. Which further studies to explore the therapeutic effects of probiotics in AD and cognitive enhancement should be warranted to provide significant clinical and practical value.

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A Cross-sectional Study on Quality of Sleep Among College Students in Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-beida, Libya

 

Nusieba A Mohammed Ibrahim*, Yahya Saber E Mansour

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-beida, Libya

Abstract

The main aims of this current study were to assess the quality of sleep and to find the association between socio-demographic proforma and quality of sleep among college students. The non-experimental cross-sectional study design was adopted. The study included 100 college students studying in two medical colleges in Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-beida, Libya. The samples were selected by the stratified sampling technique. The data was collected using socio-demographic proforma and the quality of sleep scale prepared by the investigators.The study findings showed that 3% of college students had an excellent sleep, 23% had a good sleep, 73% had fairly bad sleep, and 1% had very poor sleep. There was an association between the number of siblings and the quality of sleep.Based on the study results, it is concluded that the majority of college students had fairly bad sleep, and there is no significant association between socio-demographic proforma and quality of sleep except the number of siblings. The study helped in identifying the quality of sleep among college students. The study may help future investigators to adopt different methods to shape the truth.

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Acute Encephalitis Syndrome-The Socio-economic Burden in India

 

Chairanjib Bhattacharjee1*, Debjit Bhowmik2 

1Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siddipet-502277,Telangana, India

2Himachal Pharmacy College Nalagarh, Solan Dist-174101, Himachal Pradesh, India

Abstract

Acute encephalitis syndrome is a clinical condition caused by infection with Japanese encephalitis virus  or other infectious and noninfectious causes. Acute poses a great public health problem in India, occurring both in epidemics and sporadically. Seasonal outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome  occur with striking regularity in India and lead to substantial mortality. Several viruses, endemic in many parts of India, account for AES. Although Japanese encephalitis virus  is a key aetiological agent for AES in India, and has attracted countrywide attention, many recent studies suggest that enteroviruses and rhabdo viruses might account for outbreaks of AES. It is a neurological disorder which affects the brain and the limbic system when a specific strain of virus or a bacteria attacks the body. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain tissue. Once the virus enters inside the blood, it starts migrating to the brain tissues and multiplies itself into numbers. As soon as the signal reaches to our immune system, it generates a response to it in the form of inflamed brain or we can say swelled up brain. When this self-generated response and the infection combines, this leads to viral encephalitis and it majorly affects the spinal cord and our central nervous system causing damage to the brain cells through virus-infected blood vessels.

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Emerging Trends in Ocular Drug Delivery Special Reference to In Situ Ophthalmic Gel

 

Ram Garg*, Vikas Kumar, Vandana Sharma 

Arya College of Pharmacy, Kukas, Jaipur (RJ)- 302001, India

Abstract

Eye is the most complex and valuable organ of the body, because of its prompt pre-corneal elimination of dosage form. In order to overcome this, researchers developed a new system; in-situ gel forming system. This formulation undergoes phase transition in the eye to form gel, thus prolonging the precorneal contact time which will result in improved visual bioavailability. There are different novel ocular drug delivery systems such as In-situ gel, dendrimers, niosomes, nanoparticulate system, collagen shield, ocular iontophoresis suspension and ocusert etc. This framework comprises of polymer or mixture of polymers which display sol-gel transition due to physicochemical parameters (temperature, ion exchange & pH) of the body. This novel drug delivery system promotes the importantly ease and convenience of administration, deliverance of accurate dose as well as to prolong residence time of drug in contact with mucosa. This review incorporates different temperature, pH, and ion induced in situ-forming polymeric systems used to achieve prolonged contact time of drugs with the cornea and increment their bioavailability.

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Contemporary Development in Floating Oral In-Situ Gel: A Review

 

Ramesh Pareek*, Pawan Kumar Sharma, Vandana Sharma 

Arya College of Pharmacy, Kukas, Jaipur (RJ)- 302001, India

Abstract

Conventional oral dosage forms having low bioavailability problems due to their rapid gastric transition from stomach, in case of drugs which are less soluble at alkaline pH of intestine. Further drugs which produce their nearby activity in stomach, get quickly emptied don`t get enough residence time in stomach. To avoid these problems, different endeavors have been made to draw out the the retention time of drug in stomach. The development of in situ gel systems has gotten impressive consideration in the course of recent years as it gives the most ideal approach to conquer problems of immediate release and short GI residence of fluids. In situ gel forming drug delivery systems are principle, capable of releasing drug in a sustained manner maintaining relatively constant plasma profiles. The in situ gel dosage form is a liquid before administration and after it interacts with gastric contents gets changed over to gel which floats on gastric contents. In situ gel formation happens because of one or combination of various stimuli like pH change, temperature modulation and ionic crosslinking. This accomplishes expanded residence as well as sustained release. It can be easily applied to the site of drug absorption where they swell to form a strong gel that is capable of prolonging the residence time of the active substance. This review gives a short thought regarding floating oral in situ gel formation and research done by different researchers on various drugs.

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