Role of Tau Protein in Alzheimer Disease and its Inhibitors from Plants

 

Dr. Aitazaz Ahsan1, Dr. Humaira Zafar2*, Misha Waheed3

1Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan

2Assoc Prof of Pathology, Al Nafees Medical College & Hospital, Isra University Islamabad Campus, Pakistan

3Research Centre for Modeling and Simulation, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract

Alzheimer is a common neurodegenerative disease that affects 45 million people worldwide. Pathogenesis usually begins with formation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles due to abnormal folding of amyloid beta and tau proteins. Tau proteins are important member of microtubule associated proteins and involved in constitution of microtubules network in neurons which play major role in progression of Alzheimer disease. Hyper phosphorylation and aggregation of Tau protein on chromosome 17 may be the sign of several neurodegenerative pathologies like Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinsonism, fronto-temporal dementia and Pick disease. The complete cure of AD is not possible be with already marketed drugs. From this review article it is concluded that Tau protein is an important biomarker of Alzheimer disease. Usage of extracts from various plants i.e Danggui Longhui Wang, Hymenialdisine, Morin,  Salvia officinalis, Ginseng, helps in effective treatment of disease and hence a step forward to reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer disease.

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A Local Study on the Effect of Glipizide and Metformin as Combination Drugs in the Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in El-beida, Libya

 

Yahya Saber E. Mansour*, Nusieba A. Mohammed Ibrahim

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-beida, Libya

Abstract

This current research study was designed to investigate the effect of using the combination of metformin and glipizide over using every drug alone in the treatment of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Thirty (30) women with PCOS were divided into three groups, group I received glipizide (5mg/day) for three months, group ΙΙ received metformin (500mg/day) for three months, and group ΙΙΙ received glipizide (5mg/day) and metformin (1000mg/day) as combination drugs for a similar amount of treatment. The blood samples were drawn before treatment and after three months of treatment. The fasting plasma glucose, insulin, testosterone, and leutinizing hormone (LH) were measured before and after treatment. The reduction of insulin, glucose, LH, and testosterone levels were greater within the group received the mix of glipizide and metformin than those taken everyone alone. Testosterone levels decreased considerably (P<0.05) from baseline level 1.00±0.43ng/ml to 0.52±0.31ng/ml once treatment with combination. The speed of ovulation was 30.0%, 50.0%, and 70.0% in glipizide, metformin, and combination of each, respectively. The combination of glipizide with metformin has a great impact on the ovulation rate.

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Formulation and Evaluation Sustained Release of Lomefloxacin Hydrochloride from In-Situ Gel for Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

 

B. Komala1, S. Komala1, J. Padmavathy2*,   M. Komala2

1Jaya College of Paramedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Thiruninravur-602024, Thiruvallur (TN), India.

2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Pallavaram, Chennai-600117 (TN), India

Abstract

Periodontal diseases is a world wide prevalent chronic infection, which is caused by accumulation of specific microorganism or group of microorganisms in dental plaque, which results in the progressive loss of bone around teeth leading to loss of teeth. The present study was developed and evaluated in situ gelling system of Lomefloxacin hydrochloride by using different concentrations of Carbopol 934 for treatment of periodontitis. The drug-polymer compatibility were study using DSC. The seven formulation (L1 to L7) were prepared and their appearance, pH, viscosity, gelling capacity, %drug content, syringeability and in vitro drug release were investigated. The findings of compatibility study indicates that the drug was compatible with polymer. The developed formulations showed satisfactory results for pH, viscosity, gelling capacity, %drug content, syringeability and in vitro drug release. Based on maximum desirability and cost effectiveness formulation L7 with 1.0 % of polymer Carbopol 940, showed a sustained release of drug for 16 hrs.

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Design and Characterization of Flucytosine Loaded Bioadhesive In Situ Ophthalmic Gel for Improved Bioavailability

 

Ram Garg*, Vikas Kumar, Vandana Sharma

Arya College of Pharmacy, Kukas, Jaipur (RJ)- 302001, India

Abstract

Flucytosine is a semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic used for the treatment of trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, a gram negative bacteria. The study was planned to formulate in situ ocular gel of Flucytosine to prolong the pre-corneal residence time and gives the better bioavailability as compare to conventional dosage form. The in situ gel of Flucytosine was prepared by mixing with polymer of xanthan gum, HPMC and sodium alginate in different ratio. The six different formulations were prepared and evaluated for Clarity, visual appearance, pH, gelling capacity, drug content, in vitro drug release, kinetic model and ocular irritancy. The best formulation was subjected for stability study. The results of evaluation parameters were satisfactorily for all formulations, while F4 demonstrated maximum drug release at 8 hr and follow zero order drug release. The findings of ocular irritant indicates the F4 were non irritant and safe to use. The outcomes of stability study indicate that the F4 gel stored at room temperature and accelerated temperature were found to be comparatively stable. The study concluded that the in situ ocular gel of Flucytosine will be substitute for conventional eye drops in future.

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Development of Sustained Release of Gatifloxacin by Using Floating Oral in Situ Gelling System

 

Ramesh Pareek*, Pawan Kumar Sharma, Vandana Sharma 

Arya College of Pharmacy, Kukas, Jaipur (RJ)- 302001, India

Abstract

Gatifloxacin is end up being one of the potential medications against H. pylori infection. As conventional drug delivery systems do not remain in the stomach for delayed periods, they can`t convey the Gatifloxacin to the site of infection in effective concentrations. Hence it planned to develop a new floating in situ gelling system of Gatifloxacin with increased residence time using sodium alginate as gelling polymer and HPMC as thickening agent with a potential of H. Pylori eradication. The formulations were evaluated on the basis of Pharmacopoeial specification. Clarity, visual appearance, pH, gelling capacity, viscosity, gelation, buoyancy, water uptake, density of gel, gel strength,  drug content, assessment of drug release, release kinetics were carried out as per specifications and results were found to be complied with the Pharmacopoeial specification. The formulation F6 shows good result as compared to other formulation. The findings of prepared in situ gelling formulations of Gatifloxacin increased the gastric residence time and also float in the gastric condition.  

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