Necessity of Reviewing and Establishing the National Guidelines Regarding Antimicrobial Therapy for Bacterial Isolates


Dr. Irfan Ali Mirza1, Dr. Humaira Zafar2*, Dr. Wajid Hussain3

1Head Department of Microbiology, Consultant Microbiologist, Armed forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Consultant Microbiologist, Department of Pathology, AL Nafees Med College & Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan

3Consultant Microbiologist, Department of Microbiology, Armed forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan


The emergence of anti-microbial resistance (AMR) is one the biggest challenges faced by the clinicians around the Globe. To coup up with the situation, further management options are heading towards deficiency. In such condition appropriate selection of antibiotics in light of results obtained from culture and sensitivity harbors great significance. The currently used microbiological diagnostic and management options are based upon the guidelines derived from Western data.  The National data regarding accurate guidelines for diagnostic and management modalities are deficient. Therefore, the objectives of this review article will be to identify the significance of reviewing and establishing the National guidelines, as a stride to reduce AMR. The literature review had emphasized the need of reviewing and establishing the regional and National guidelines as a significant factor to reduce anti-microbial resistance.


Comprehensive Review on Phytochemistry, Ethnobotanical, Bioactivities and Medicinal Mysteries of Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) Hochr


Ashwani Tiwari, Atul Patel, Sarika Shrivastava, Sarita Karole*, Usha Vishwakarma, Prakash Mishra

Oriental College of pharmacy, Raisen Rd, Patel Nagar, Bhopal-462022, (M.P.), India


Various parts of plants such as leaf, stem, roots and barks were used as medicines in auyrveda, siddha, unani and homeopathic treatments. As only few studies are done on such plant, the purpose of this current review is to make accessible till date information on, botany, morphology, ecological biodiversity, therapeutic uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities on diverse parts of Ougeinia oojeinensis. This review was assembled using technical literature from electronic search engine such as Springerlink, BioMed Central, PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Scielo, Medline and Science domain. Supplementary texts were obtained from books, book chapters, dissertations, websites and other scientific publications. O. oojeinensis commonly known as Tinsa, is rich in secondary metabolites, which impart incredible medicinal uses to the plant. The active constituents extracted from O. oojeinensis are genistein, ougenin, dalbergioidin, kaempferol, lupeol, Ferreirin, neophellamuretin, orobol, wedelolactone, homoferririn isoflavanone and betulin etc. The uses of bark are astringent, acrid, cooling, stimulant, anti-inflammatory, constipating, anthelmintic, sudorific, depurative, urinary astringent, styptic, febrifuge and rejuvenating. The extract of the whole plant showed anti-inflammatory, hypotensive action, antioxidant activity, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, hypoglycemic and wound healing activities. There is a need to isolate the active constituents, their biological test, experimental defense, molecular mechanisms and legalization of there therapeutic uses of O. oojeinensis. The gathered detail will be obliging to determine the study protocol for current drugs and Ayurvedic formulation extension in the remedial and luxury a variety of ailments. Clinical trials for the reported preclinical studies should be executed immediately to further validate the claims on humans.


In-silico Druggability Studies of 4-hydroxy-α-tetralone and its Derivatives with RND Efflux pump of E. coli


Sonam Singh1#, A. S. Sanket2#, Gaurav R. Dwivedi3, Harish C. Upadhyay1*

1Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Applied Sciences, Rajkiya Engineering College (Affiliated with Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow), Churk, Sonbhadra-231206, India

2Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha- 751004, India

3ICMR-Regional Medical Research Center, Gorakhpur, U.P.- 273013, India


The compound 4-hydroxy-α-tetralone (1) has been reported to possess potent anti-tubercular, anti-diabetic and anti-leishmanial activities. In our earlier studies the compound 1 and its various semi-synthetic derivatives showed potent bioenhancing activity in combination with nalidixic acid (NAL) and tetracycline (TET) reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics up to 8 folds by inhibition of ABC efflux pump. However, in gram negative bacteria, resistance nodulation division (RND) family are considered as major efflux pump responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR). Hence, the current study was carried out to access the in-silico docking potential of compound 1 and its cinnamoyl (1a), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzoyl (1b) derivatives against RND efflux pump target proteins AcrA, AcrB, TolC of E. coli. The docking study showed that the test compounds have good binding affinity with target proteins. The derivative 1a showed highest interaction with AcrA followed by AcrB showing binding energies -8.7 and -8.2 kcal/mol respectively. The low molecular weight ≤500, high hydrogen bonding, high log p value (>1) with hydroxy, methoxy and aromatic group of ligands make these compounds as effective efflux pump inhibitor. In drug likeliness studies, these compounds pass the safety criteria with enhanced bioavailability and absorption, less acute oral toxicity, less hepatotoxicity. This study promises that the compound 1 and its derivatives (1a & 1b) might be RND efflux pump inhibitors providing the initial platform for development of safer and cost-effective antibacterial drug to manage MDR infections.


Developed Process Validation Method of Lamotrigine Extended Release Tablets for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing


Kiranbala Jain*, Meenakshi Bharkatiya

Bhupal Noble’s Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, B.N. University, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan, India


Validation is integral part of cGMP, and assured production of quality based pharmaceutical products special reference to extended release tablets. The quality of pharmaceutical dosage form can be achieved by performing finished product testing and in-process monitoring. Hence, the present study was planned to developed process validation protocol and perform process validation for extended release tablets of Lamotrigine. The three different batches X, Y and Z of Lamotrigine extended release (Lamotrigine XR) tablets were manufactured with identified equipments and control parameters. The appearance, average weight, individual weight variation, thickness, hardness, assay, uniformity content and dissolution of blend stage, compression stage and coating stage of Lamotrigine XR were evaluated. Sampling, testing plan and acceptance criteria for each step were monitored. The findings exhibited that the values of all stages were found to be within the acceptable limit. Consequently, it can be concluded that the process stands validated and the data can be used in regulatory submission for obtaining marketing authorization of Lamotrigine XR tablets.


Knowledge and Awareness of Thyroid Disorder Among Women in Selangor 2019


Mohamed Mustafa Abdussalam Treki1, Sakina Ruhi1*, Khaled Saleh3, Piravetha Balasubramaniam4, Aminu Ishaka4, Jiyauddin Khan2, Shariq Baber2, Salman Hasan5, Mohammed Kaleemullah2, Sohayla M. Attalla1,3

1International Medical School (IMS), Management and Science University (MSU), 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

2School of Pharmacy, Management and Science University (MSU), 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

3Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

4Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Usman Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria

5Sri Sai Dental Medical College, Kaloji Narayana Rao (KNR), University of Health Sciences, Telangana 506007, India


Thyroid disorders are common among women. Some factors may be lack of qualified physicians, less time spent for patient education, lack of awareness and use of electronic media to harness information, poor knowledge about reliable sources of information. Proper knowledge regarding thyroid disorders will make women aware and help at early detection. Therefore, the aim is to focus on the study about the knowledge and awareness of thyroid disorder among women. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and awareness among women in Selangor. 288 women are selected randomly from Selangor with age range 18 to 55 years old. Primary data were collected using self-administered questionnaire consisting socio-demographic for part A, knowledge of thyroid disorder for part B and awareness of thyroid disorder for part C. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS version 24. 48.3% (71) women have poor knowledge and 51.7% (76) women have good knowledge in Shah Alam. Whereas in Klang, 48.2% (68) women have poor knowledge and 51.8% (73) women have good knowledge. 10.2% (15) women have poor awareness, 89.8% (132) women have good awareness in Shah Alam. Whereas in Klang, 14.9% (21) women have poor awareness and 85.1% (120) women have good awareness. The respondents living area has no significant relationship to knowledge and awareness of thyroid disorder. In general, the women’s knowledge and awareness have no significant relationship with respondents living area. Most women have good knowledge and awareness. 


Influence of Electrolyte Type, pH, Temperature and Aging on the Viscosity Property of Okra Gum as a Suspending Agent in Paracetamol Suspension


Vincent Obaga Nyandoro*, Joshua Ikoni Ogaji, Jennifer Drambi Audu-Peter

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, PMB 2084 Jos 93003, Plateau State, Nigeria


The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of electrolyte type, pH, temperature and aging on the viscosity property of okra gum using paracetamol as model drug. Paracetamol (125 mg/ 5 mL) suspension containing okra gum particles of undersize 180 µm as suspending agent was formulated. Similar suspension of paracetamol was formulated using tragacanth gum as a suspending agent for comparison. Effect of electrolyte type, pH, temperature and aging on the viscosity property of okra gum in paracetamol suspension was evaluated using standard methods. Addition of electrolytes, changes in pH, increase in temperature and increase in storage time were shown to decrease the viscosity of the paracetamol suspension. The effect of temperature and aging on the viscosity of the suspension formulation containing okra gum was more pronounced than on the formulation containing tragacanth gum. Conversely, the effect of alkaline pH and type of electrolyte on the viscosity of the suspension formulation containing tragacanth gum was more pronounced than on the formulation containing okra gum. On the basis of these, formulators and caregivers may consider these factors when designing or using pharmaceutical suspensions containing natural gums such as okra and tragacanth as viscosity enhancing agents.