Evaluation of antioxidant potentials of ethanol stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii and its phytochemical screening

 

Jeweldai Vedekoi*, Sokeng Dongmo Selestin

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundéré, PO Box 454 Ngaoundéré, Cameroon

Abstract

Healing with traditional herbal remedies is invaluable in avoiding the toxicity of synthetic drugs. The ethanol stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii (Burseraceae) was chosen for the experiment to estimate the phytochemical constitution and their antioxidant activity using ferric reducing power assay (FRAP) and 2,2- diphenyl-1-piccrylhydrazylhydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was calculated and compared with the standard synthetic drug ascorbic acid. Phytochemical screening was used to check the presence of pharmacologically active compounds known as phytochemicals in the stem bark extract. In addition, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities of ethanol stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii (ESBD) were determined. Results of the phytochemical profile of the extract, analyzed exhibited that the ESBD contains several secondary metabolites. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were found to be 22.08 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per 100 gram extract and 0.034 mg rutin equivalents (RE) per 100 g extract, respectively. For antioxidant activity, the ESBD showed the good scavenging activity against DPPH with IC50 value of 34.65 µg/mL and the highest reducing power with IC50 value of 18.37 µg/mL. These values are comparable to those of the ascorbic acid as standard for DPPH scavenging activity and reductive potential. The results obtained in this research demonstrated in that ESBDcontains phytochemicals of biological and pharmacological importance and has antioxidant capacity which can be utilized to alleviate the symptoms of chronic and degenerative diseases.

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Targeted Therapies For Treatment of Lung Cancer – Recent Advances

 

Foziya Khan1*, S.S. Sisodia2

1Department of Pharmacology, M. Pharm, Bhupal Noble’s University, Udaipur- 313001, Rajasthan, India

2Department of Pharmacology, Principal of Institution, Bhupal Noble’s University, Udaipur- 313001, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

In both men and women, Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related death. The disorder is especially difficult to detect, and often develops for elderly patients at an advanced stage. Within a year of treatment, more than half of those diagnosed with lung cancer die and 5- year survival is less than 18%. Majority of all lung cancer cases are attributed to Non Small Cell Lung Cancer. Significant advancements in research and diagnosis over the past 10 years have though, culminated in the first improvements made in lung cancer survival. New developments in lung cancer’s cellular pathogenesis and biological activity have culminated in the advancement of rationally developed approaches for early detection, prevention, and treatment of this illness. There are currently several novel treatments in clinical practice, including those that target actionable mutations and more recently immunotherapy. This review will outline developments and emerging debates in lung cancer treatment.

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In Vitro Antioxidant Property and Phytochemical Constituents of Senna alata Leaves Aqueous Extract Collected in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon)

 

Jeweldai Vedekoi*, Sokeng Dongmo Selestin 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundéré, PO Box 454 Ngaoundéré, Cameroon

Abstract

Leaves extract of Senna alata L. are used as indigenous medicine to treat various types of disease like ulcers, stomach, pain and fever. The present study was undertaken to study the phytochemical screening, total phenolic compounds (TPC), total flavonoid compounds (TFC) and in vitro antioxidant of Senna alata leaves’ extract growing in Ngaoundéré town (Cameroon). Respective bioactivities of the phytochemicals were determined. Quantitative analysis of the total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method while total flavonoid was estimated using aluminium trichloride (AlCl3). The antioxidant capacities in the forms of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) were evaluated by spectrophotometric methods. For these purposes, aqueous extract were prepared. Now the experimental screening of phytochemicals showed negative results for the absence of reducing compounds, steroids/triterpenes, and tannins. The results showed that TPC, TFC values were higher: 14.768±0.26 mg GAE per g of extract, 4.32±0.12 mg Ru per g of extract, respectively. The Senna alata Leaves’ extract (SALE) exhibited the best DPPH inhibition concentration 50% (IC50 = 12.05 mg. mL-1), and FRAP method (IC50 = 2.79 mg. mL-1) compared to that of the positive control, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 17.69 mg/mL); Hence, extract from the leaves of Senna alata contains high secondary metabolites which accounts for its strong antioxidant ability thus justifying its use as natural occurring antioxidants in folkloric medicine. 

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Assessment of Antiulcer Activity of Ethanol Extract of Ficus religiosa Fruit in Pylorus Ligated and Aspirin induced Ulceration in Experimental Animals

 

Harikesh Yadav1, Virendra Kumar Maurya2, Bhavana Yadav1, Pankaj Kumar3, Ashok Kumar Yadav3, Asha Roshan1

1R. K. Pharmacy College, Sathiaon, Azamgarh-276403 (UP), India

2Smt Fulehra Smarak College of Pharmacy, Ballia-221712 (UP), India

3VMY College of Pharmacy, Madhuban, Mau (UP), India

Abstract

Ficus religiosa is a medicinal plant and scientifically documented for the pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, etc. The present study was planned to investigate the antiulcer activity of ethanol extract of Ficus religiosa fruit in pylorus ligated and aspirin induced ulceration in experimental animals. The ethanol extract of fruits of Ficus religiosa were prepared by maceration. The antiulcer activity of ethanol extract were evaluated by using pylorus ligated and aspirin induced ulceration models. The administration of ethanol extract of ethanol extract of Ficus religiosa at the dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the ulcer index, pH, gastric volume, free acidity and total acidity compared to control group. The findings proposed the antiulcer activity of ethanol extract of Ficus religiosa fruit.

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Assessment of Health Disorders and Drug Use Pattern Among Pregnant Women at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal

 

Sheela Khadka*, Nayan Manandhar

Institute of Medicine, Maharajgunj medical campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Abstract

To assess the different types of health disorders that are more frequent during the pregnancy and drugs prescribed for the management of those disorders are of the safest category and in practice considering the risk to benefit ratio. Also, to find out the extent to which the drugs prescribed are adhered to WHO prescribing indicators. It was an observational cross-sectional study. Data collection sheets were filled by the direct questionnaire and the prescription paper. The drugs were evaluated from WHO core prescribing indicators. Among the total of 141 pregnant women, the maximum number were from the age group 20-25 years. The average number of drugs received during pregnancy is 3.25 per prescription. Whereas the percentage of the drug prescribed by generic name and essential drug list were found to be 26.1 and 56.64, respectively. The most frequently prescribed drug was from the USFDA safe category i.e. category B (53%) and only 2% of drugs were prescribed from category X. Most of the medicine was prescribed listed in the National essential drug list. Deviation was observed in terms of prescription of injection and drugs with a generic name. Contraindicated medicines during pregnancy were almost absent in this study. Pregnant women who appeared during the duration of the study with the health disorder were treated with the appropriate drugs considering the risk to the benefit ratio. However, to assure the rational drug prescription the prescription audit should be carried out at regular intervals.

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Scenario of poisoning cases in Devdaha Medical College Teaching Hospital, Rupandehi, Nepal: A Retrospective Study

 

Sagar K.C.1*, Sagarananda Giri2, Santosh Gupta3, Ghanshyam Pandey3

1Department of Pharmacy, Mayadevi Technical College, Rupandehi-32900, Nepal

2School of Health and Allied Sciences, Pokhara University, Kaski-33700, Nepal

3Department of Pharmacy, Devdaha Medical College Teaching Hospital, Rupandehi-32900, Nepal

Abstract

Poisoning is a major global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world including Nepal. The scenario of poisoning can vary among demographics and geography within the country. This study aims to find out the scenario of poisoning cases in Devdaha Medical College Teaching Hospital (DMCTH), Rupandehi, Nepal. It is a hospital-based retrospective study that was carried out in the Emergency Department of DMCTH from August 2013 to July 2015. Out of the total 107 cases, more of the poisoning cases were found in the third decade of life (21-30 yrs) followed by the second decade (11-20 yrs). The minimum cases of poisoning were observed among females aged above 60 years and males aged 51-60 yrs. Most of the patients recovered and were discharged within three days of admission. Five fatal cases were found. Pesticides and insecticides were the common poisoning agents used. The incidence of poisoning was prevalent among the young adult (15-29 yrs) patients admitted to DMCTH. A higher incidence of intentional poisoning was found in this study. Implementation of effective prevention strategies can minimize the incidences of poisoning while early detection and effective management of poisoning can minimize mortality. 

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