Standardization of Protocol for In Vitro Micropropagation of Morus alba L., An Important Economical and Medicinal Plant

 

Vandana Dubey1*, Dr. Shagufta Khan3, Dr. Kunwar Wajahat Shah2, Dr. R. K. Raghuwanshi1

1Government Narmada Mahavidyalaya, Hoshangabad-461001, M.P., India

2Government PG College, Pipariya-461775, M.P., India

3GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India

Abstract

An efficient regeneration protocol for Morus alba L. was developed using nodal explants on MS medium augmented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The highest frequency (80.0%) of bud breaks and shoot induction was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP along with 0.5 mg/l NAA with the formation of 5.1±0.1 number of shoots 30 days.  MS medium fortified with the same combination of GR (1.0 mg/l BAP and NAA (0.5 mg/L) added with 10% Coconut water showed the highest percentage (80.0%) shoot multiplication, directly from the explants, without any callus formation. Elongated shoots were rooted best on MS medium with 20 mg/l AC producing maximum number of roots with average length 7.0±0.6 cm within 20 days. The plantlets were gradually acclimatized and successfully transferred to field condition with 90% survival rate after rooting. The standardized protocol reported in this study may help in large scale propagation of this plant species which is currently exploited from the nature.

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Effect of Growth Regulators on Callus Culture and Regeneration of Morus alba L. 

 

Vandana Dubey1*, Dr. Shagufta Khan3, Dr. Kunwar Wajahat Shah2, Dr. R. K. Raghuwanshi1

1Government Narmada Mahavidyalaya, Hoshangabad-461001, M.P., India

2Government PG College, Pipariya-461775, M.P., India

3GrowTips Biotech, Saket Nagar, Bhopal (MP)- 462024, India

Abstract

Plantlets of the Morus alba L. were produced from callus initiated from leaf, internodal segments, and petiole explants on MS basal medium fortified with auxins and cytokinins like 2, 4-D, NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Callogenesis was dependent on the nature of explants used, and growth regulators supplemented in the medium. Leaves were the best explant used for callus induction. Maximum callus was obtained on MS medium containing a combination of 1.0 mg /1 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg/ l (80%). The regeneration of shoots from callus was seen on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP and 0.5 NAA. Presence of NAA in the medium also improved the long term organogenic potential of the callus. Regenerated shoots produced best roots on Murashige & Skoog (MS) half concentration medium containing 20 mg/l. 

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Knowledge, Awareness and Practice of Patient with Primary Hypothyroidism Among the Patient Attending at Endocrinology Care Center: A Pharmacist Intervention

 

Gulam Muhammad Khan*, Sikshya Panta 

School of Health and Allied Sciences, Pokhara University, Kaski-33700, Nepal 

Abstract

Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder with a prevalence of 1-2% in the world. The symptoms of hypothyroidism includes, cardiac dysfunction, dyspnea and reduced exercise tolerance, overt cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to access Knowledge, awareness and, the practice of patient with primary hypothyroidism among the patient attending at endocrinology care center. In this study, most of the female patients were seen hypothyroid than males. Out of a total of 164 respondents, 5.5% were age group of 15-24, 52.4% were age group 25-44, 39% were from the age group 45-64 and 3% were above 65. Among the studied population, 93.9% were male and e other ware female. The majority of the respondent was in the age group of 25-44 years (52.4%). Major differences were seen after the intervention regarding the Knowledge about thyroid and hypothyroidism. Before intervention respondent was more unknown towards the test required for treatment and similarly after the intervention improved the understanding level of patients towards hypothyroidism. Hence this study suggested advantages of intervention by pharmacist in improving knowledge, attitude and practice of patients towards management of disease. 

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Meta-Analysis to Identify the Predisposing Factors, Diagnosis, and Anti Microbial Therapy Guidelines for Clostridium difficile Infection

 

Humaira Zafar1*, Irfan Ali Mirza2, Wajid Hussain3

1Associate Professor of Pathology, Consultant Microbiologist, Al Nafees Medical College & Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan

2Professor of Pathology, Consultant Microbiologist, Armed forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

3Assistant Professor of Pathology, Consultant Microbiologist, Department of Microbiology, Armed forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abstract

The objectiveof current meta-analysis was to identify the predisposing factors, diagnostic, and anti microbial therapy guidelines for clostridium difficile infection. The methodology of this meta analysis involved the simple random sampling technique. Total 67 articles were selected and included for study i.e three decades (1988 uptil 2019). The results revealed significant drugs association and predisposing factors includes over use of antibiotics especially in immunosuppressed persons i.e 42.8% and 64.2% respectively. The common clinical presentations are temperature greater than 38°C (73.3%) and abdominal pain (53.3%). The lab diagnostic options includes WBCs ; ≥ 15,000 cell/µL (54.5%), albumin; ≤2.5 g/dL (54.5%), creatinine; ≥ 1.5 (54.5%), positive toxin assay (31.8%), and positive PCR including NAAT (27.2%)  respectively. Next in sequence are the details for the complications i.e toxic megacolon (84.6%), hemodynamic instability (69.2%) and pseudo membarnous colitis (53.8%). In mild to moderate CDI, the drug of choice will be Metronidazole (45%). In severe cases, the drug of choice is a combination of metronidazole plus vancomycin (68%). For complicated cases the drug of choice is Fidaxomicin (31.8%). The conclusion revealed that CDI had strong association with over use of antibiotics and immunosuppression. Most common clinical presentations are the increased fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Increased WBCs, hypoalbuminemia, positive toxin assay and positive PCR are the lab diagnostic options. Metronidazole is a drug of choice for managing mild to moderate CDI. While in severe cases, the drug of choice can be a combination of metronidazole plus vancomycin.

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Solid Waste Exposure Effects on Serum Minerals, Antioxidant Vitamins And Oxidative Stress Among Adult Waste Pickers of Dhaka, Bangladesh

 

Nahid Tamanna, Yearul Kabir* 

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

Abstract

In Bangladesh, improper waste disposal is one of the major causes of environmental pollution. It is responsible for a significant health risk, especially people working in solid waste disposal sites and living nearby. Unfortunately, no specific information is available regarding the effect of exposure to occupational hazards in Bangladesh. This study was designed to assess the occupational health risk of male adults working in solid waste dumping landfill in relation to their exposure. Blood samples were collected from exposed (working in the garbage dumping site for at least 6 months) and control subjects (age and gender-matched and never exposed to dumped garbage). Oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl content), antioxidant vitamins (retinol and α-tocopherol), and most common toxic heavy metal and nutritionally important minerals (lead, iron, and zinc) level were analyzed and compared with unexposed control subjects. Oxidative stress-mediated damage of macromolecules in terms of protein carbonyl group was found to be significantly (p<0.001) increased in the exposed adults. Exposed subjects also contained a significantly (p<0.05) higher level of lead, whereas no significant difference was found in serum vitamin A and E between exposed and unexposed subjects. This study indicated that people working on waste disposal landfills and exposed to solid waste have substantial occupational health risks in terms of lead intoxication and oxidative stress.

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The Effect of Herbicide Metribuzin on Environment and Human: A Systematic Review

 

Derouiche Samir1,2, Rezzag Mohcem Om Selma1, Serouti Asma1

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of the Sciences of Nature and Life,  El Oued University, El Oued 39000, El Oued, Algeria

2Laboratory of Biodiversity and Application of Biotechnology in the Agricultural Field, Faculty of the Sciences of Nature and Life,University of El Oued,  El-Oued 39000, Algeria

Abstract

Metribuzin is a synthetic organic compound used as a selective Triazinone herbicide, incorporated as a post-emergent soil applied herbicide to control weeds in wheat, potato, tomato and others. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Metribuzin on the environment and human health. Human exposure to Metribuzin occurs through inhalation and ingestion, usually in agricultural settings. Farmers` occupational exposure to Metribuzin is highly variable and complex depending on the farm but Few studies have assessed the exposure of the population to this herbicide. Metribuzin can accumulate in soil and water and cause damage to flora and fauna. furthermore,  Herbicides Metribuzin have a very variable toxicity, in the short term it can cause acute intoxication which can cause breathing and difficult drowsiness but the high exposures can cause stomach aches, fatigue and depression of the central nervous system, on the other hand in the long term and with strong exposure or other repeated it can cause modifications of the hepatic enzymes, disturbance in the kidneys, can affect the reproduction, the endocrine function and oxidant/antioxidant system imbalance. This study highlights on the undesirable effect of Metribuzin which allows to affirm their toxicity even at low doses, is not only following an occupational exposure, but also for the general population by their use of treated agricultural products by these pesticides, which poses a real public health problem. Accordingly, it is imperative that farmers avoid their use and replace them with biological fertilizers that are less harmful to human and animal health.

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Phyto-Phospholipid Complexes: Innovative Approach to Enhance the Bioavailability and Therapeutic Efficacy of Herbal Extract

 

Anju Singh*, Avishikta Ray, Rakhi Mishra, Pramod K. Biswal, Reenu Yadav, Shailesh Kumar Ghatuary 

Bhabha Pharmacy Research Institute, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal-462047 (MP), India

Abstract

The herbal drug are used extensively for the treatment of the various diseases by the globe. The minimum side effects of medicinal plants attract people for its medicinal uses. The conventional dosage form of herbal medicine has certain limitation like low absorption, reduced bioavailability and lower penetration across biological membrane, it decrease their uses. Hence the introduction of novel drug delivery system namely Phyto-Phospholipid Complexes techniques resolve all these issues of herbal extract or plant actives. This advance technology technique reduced dose to produce desired therapeutic effect, improved stability due to chemical linkage, ability to permeate through skin systematic targeting to transit from hydrophilic to lipophilic environment and improved pharmacokinetic parameters. This review summarizes the latest investigations regarding the possible application of Phytosomes complexes for therapy of different dieseases, their marketed formulation, mechanism of transportation through phytosome and future prospect. The prospectus of Phytosomes technique can suggest new directions and endless frontier as novel drug treatment.

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