Exploitation of Plant Herbs in the Control of Disease Vectors: A Review


Mary Oluchi Iwuagwu1*, Paschal Emeka Etusim2, Nneka Constance Emmanuel1, Jude Chibuzo Igwe3, Victor Oluoha Nwaugo4, Reginard Azu Onyeagba4  

1Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Abia State University, P.M.B. 2000, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Abia State University, P.M.B. 2000, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

3Department of Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University, P.M.B. 2000, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

4Department of Microbiology, Abia State University, P.M.B. 2000, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria


Diseases transmitted by vectors have been plaguing man since time immemorial causing millions of deaths annually. The highest occurrence reportedly occurs in tropical and subtropical areas where malaria, the commonest vector-borne disease, is highest. The management of vector-borne diseases has been basically by controlling their vectors using synthetic insecticides: the pyrethroids, organophosphates, organochlorines: carbamates.  Reports have shown that these insecticides pollute the environment, result in bio-magnification and affect non-target organisms mostly man thereby raising health concern. Also, there is development of insecticide resistance in the disease vectors, which may hamper the effective use of the insecticides. These negative effects associated with the use of synthetic insecticides emphasize the need for alternative method of control. The control of disease vectors with the use of herbal-based products that have insecticidal properties is promising as it is safe to non-target organisms, eco-friendly, bio-degradable, less expensive and the development of resistance in the vectors is more or less absent. The insecticidal activity of plant herbs is attributed to the presence of complex mixture of bio-active compounds, which act as anti-feedants, oviposition deterrents, repellents, attractants, etc. Using relevant literatures, this paper discussed disease vectors, method of transmission of vector-borne diseases, the need for alternative method of disease vector control and the most common plants employed in the control of disease vectors including their families, products, bio-active compounds, their activity and mode of action. Use of plant herbs and their products can therefore, serve as alternative method for vector control programme.  


Tuberculosis and its Diagnosis: Past, Present and Future


Aditi Giri Goswami*, Sandeep Kumar Verma, Manmohan S. Jangdey

Shri Rawatpura Sarkar College of Pharmacy, Rawatpura Sarkar University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh-492015, India


Tuberculosis is an endemic disease in the developing countries worldwide. Early and definitive diagnosis of Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is important both at individual and population level for reducing mortality as well as transmission of the disease. Currently available diagnostics can be broadly categorized into microscopy, culture based and molecular method-based approaches. Among the advanced molecular methods, the Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAA), Line Probe Assay and Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CB NAAT) are mentionable. However, all these diagnostic methods either have compromised sensitivity or require expensive instrumentations that ultimately limit their efficacy as established diagnostic method. Currently used rapid and affordable diagnostic test for TB is sputum microscopy that detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in clinical sample. This test has sub-optimal sensitivity as it depends firstly on the abundance of Mtb in the sample and secondly on operator’s accuracy. On the other hand, culture-based diagnostic tests are time-consuming and dependent on expertise and infrastructure. Likewise, molecular tests are also dependent on expensive instrumentation and technical sophistication. Hence, rapid, sensitive and affordable diagnostic method for the detection of Active Pulmonary tuberculosis at an early phase is still a primary requisite.


Formulation and Evaluation of Hydro-gel containing Eclipta alba extract


Pushpendra Kumar Kurre­ Suresh Kumar Ghritlahare, Manmohan Singh Jangdey 

Department of Pharmacy, Shri Rawatpura Sarkar University Raipur, (C.G.) -492015, India


Formulation & evaluation of Eclipta alba hydro-gel, the medicinal herbal hydrogel was prepared by using alcoholic extracted leaf powder of Eclipta alba, Carbopol-934, Acacia, Glycerin Sodium benzoate and HPMC. Leaves in concentration (1% and 5%) and evaluated using physiological measurements. The prepared herbal hydrogel formulation was studied for pre-liminary evaluation such as Viscosity, pH, Spreadibility, Rheological studies, Skin irritation test and Drug content uniformityAccelerated stability studies for 3 months. The Formulated hydrogel pH was found to range of 6.45 to 6.68, which lies in the normal pH range of the skin. The formulations did not produce any skin irritation, i.e., erythematic and edema for about a week, when applied over the skin. The viscosity of formulation was range 1024 which spread on the skin properly. On the basis of evaluation study, it can be concluded that Eclipta alba Linn. Medicinal herbal hydrogel may be used for wound healing, antibacterial and antifungal activity anticancer, Anti-inflammatory activity.


Development and Validation of UV Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Fluconazole in the Marketed Dosage Formulations


Shoaeb Mohammad Syed1*, Marathe RP2 

1Dr Vedprakash Patil Pharmacy College, Aurangabad, Maharashtra-431136, India

2Govt. College of Pharmacy, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra-415612, India


The aim of current study was to develop and validate UV Spectrophotometric method for Fluconazole. Ultra Violet Spectroscopy was carried out at 260nm and samples were prepared with a solution of phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The linearity demonstrated a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The method was subjected to validity for the parameters as per ICH guidelines. Correctness, exactness, LOD, LOQ, recovery study and range were determined and the parameters were determined by performing the repeated experiments and proper sampling of the solution. The objective of selection of UV spectroscopy was the simplicity, time and economy of the method furthermore the sensitivity was also high by UV spectroscopy as HPLC technique is costly, time consuming and number of factors may affect the determination. It was observed that, the proposed method was linear, correct, repeatable, error free, selective, specific and cost effective proving the dependability of the method. More over same solvent was used throughout the experimental work and it was found that the method was free from any type of interference from any excipients and method was simple, rapid, precise, accurate and sensitive and can be applied in routine analysis of Fluconazole in single and combined form.


Comprehensive Notes on Phytochemical and Pharmacological Activity of Morus alba


Vandana Dubey1*, Dr. Kunwar Wajahat Shah2, Dr. R. K. Raghuwanshi1

1Government Narmada Mahavidyalaya, Hoshangabad-461001, M.P., India

2Government PG College, Pipariya-461775, M.P., India


Herbal medicine has minimum side effect and treat the diseases from root level. Presently global pharmaceutical market has good response for herbal medicines, herbal cosmetics and nutraceuticals. The pharmacological activity of medicinal plants is due to presence of secondary metabolite namely alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, polyphenol etc. The herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, fever, skin diseases etc. Morus alba belongs to family Moraceae has potent pharmacological activity and prescribed for the ailment of different diseases. The different parts of Morus alba are worthy source of active constituents namely Albanol, Albafuran, Kuwanol, Murasin, Hydroximorasinesand Moranoline, phytosterols, triterpenes, sitosteroles, benzofuran derivatives, morusimic acid, anthraquinones, glycosides, oleanolic acid, anthocyaninsetc. The present review paper illustrate the scientifically reported phytochemical and pharmacological activity of Morus alba. The researchers working on herbal medicines get all the comprehensive updates related to phytochemical and pharmacological activity of Morus alba from this study.