Insight Mode of Action and Phytochemistry of Reported Medicinal Plant with Possible Antidiabetic Activity
Santosh Kumar Jha1,2*, D. P. Chatterjee2
1Om Sadashiva College ofPharmacy,Sagdaha,Jasidih,Deoghar, Jharkhand, India
2Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, SAGE University, Indore (MP), India
Received: 10-Jul-2020 , Accepted: 18-Dec-2020
Keywords: Antidiabetic Activity, Phytochemistry, Medicinal plant
How To Cite
Diabetes become very common in people of developed countries due to their changed food habit and no physical activity. The various types of synthetic medicines are available for the management of diabetes. These medicines are associated with the side effects. Apart from this, the alternative medicines such as herbal drug are the best option for the treatment of diabetes. The herbal medicines are free from any type of side effects, and presently their demands are increased. The herbal drugs are available in different dosage form. The numerous medicinal plants have been scientifically reported antidiabetic property by the researchers. The review paper highlights the plants having antidiabetic activity with their phytochemistry and possible mechanism of action. Additionally, the active constituents responsible for antidiabetic activity are also illustrated.
Diabetes is one of the significant endocrine infections which influences a great many individuals in the industrial and developing countries. It is extended that the all out number of individuals with diabetes overall is relied upon to increment to 592 million by 2035. Diabetes is a metabolic infection described by inadequate insulin emission, impeded cell activity of the insulin or both. The trademark side effects of diabetes are pruritus, polydipsia, weight reduction, polyphagia, squandering, obscured vision, polyuria, tachycardia and hypotension. Dietary and way of life factors (Obesity, weight acquire, actual dormancy and low fiber diet with a high glycemic file) assume a huge part in the improvement of diabetes1-6.
The treatment convention requires a multimodal approach which ought to be customized with the goal that it changes from individual to individual. When all is said in done, DM is arranged into two classifications: type 1 and type 2. In sort 1 diabetes (T1DM), chemical insulin isn`t created because of the obliteration of pancreatic β cells, while type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is portrayed by a reformist debilitation of insulin emission by pancreatic β cells and by a general diminished affectability of target tissues to the activity of this chemical. T2DM prompts other neurotic outcomes like cardiovascular issues, nephropathy, neuropathies and the patient gets inclined to various contaminations as well. The expanding clinical weight on patients with diabetes-related complexities additionally brings about a colossal monetary weight, which could seriously weaken worldwide financial development soon7-10.
The treatment of diabetes mellitus depends on insulin, diet alteration and oral hypoglycemic agent. Natural medication has created as an option for the treatment of diabetes since oral hypoglycemic specialists are costly and labeled with a few results (sickness, skin responses, liver infection, cardiovascular breakdown loose bowels, and so forth) Indian customary medical care framework utilizes various therapeutic plants customarily more than 1000 years in natural arrangements. Restorative plants, minerals and natural issue cover a significant piece of customary medications. The greater part of the Indian conventional clinical agents figures and administer their own plans. 21,000 plants are recorded by the WHO, which are utilized for therapeutic purposes far and wide. Among these, 2500 species are in India, out of which, 150 species are utilized industrially on a genuinely huge scope. India is the biggest maker of restorative spices and is known as the greenhouse of the world11,12. The researchers conducted preclinical antidiabetic activity of different medicinal plants. The aim of this review article is to collect data of reported antidiabetic medicinal plant and illustrate their mechanism of action and phytochemistry.
2 Plants having antidiabetic activity
Currently, some restorative plants have been accounted for to be helpful in diabetes worldwide and have been utilized experimentally as antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic cures. The medicinal plant demonstrated antidiabetic activity by decreasing the glucose -6 phosphates and fructose 1, 6 phosphatase enzymes activity, enhancing the secretion of insulin, regeneration of pancreatic β cells, inhibiting the α-glucosidase and amylase etc mechanism. It has been reported that more than 400 plant species having hypoglycemic action have been accessible in writing, notwithstanding, looking for new antidiabetic drugs from normal plants is as yet alluring in light of the fact that they contain substances which show option and safe impacts on diabetes mellitus13. Table 1 illustrated the scientifically reported antidiabetic plants with their possible mechanism of action along with phytochemicals.
3 Phytochemicals having antidiabetic activity
The detection of novel herbal antidiabetic drugs have great importance due to their minimum side effects and safety concerns. In this connection, the examination of phytochemicals answerable for antidiabetic impacts has advanced over the most recent couple of many years. The antidiabetic impact of plant materials have been credited to the combination of phytochemicals or a solitary part of plant extract. Restorative plants produce a wide assortment of phytochemicals, incorporate alkaloids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, polysaccharides, stilbenes, and tannin, which are seriously explored for their antidiabetic impacts. Table 2 demonstrated the phytochemical obtained from the plants having antidiabetic activity.
The numerous researchers reported the potential of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes. The active constituents isolated from the medicinal plants are clinically proved for the treatment of diabetes. Yet, plenty of isolated compounds has been not clinically investigated and not formulated into dosage form. So, these are essential component for the search of new antidiabetic medicines. Further, researchers can also explore the bioactive components responsible for the antidiabetic activity from traditionally used plants. The chemist researchers have huge opportunities to characterize the active constituents by isolating from the plant extract having potent antidiabetic activity.
The plant extract or bioactive components have higher molecular weight which lowered the bioavailability of dosage form. The researchers working in the nano and targeted drug delivery system can formulate the plant extract or active constituents in novel form and improve their bioavailability. The many plant substances are still require to explore their toxicity profile for the safety concern of the drug.
Diabetes is one of the common endocrine disorders and widespread across the Globe. The Alternative system of medicines mentioned the plenty of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes. This review paper highlighted the mechanism of action of plant-based antidiabetic drug. Similarly, the mode of action of antidiabetic activity of the phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, phenolic acids, tannins etc. It is looking forward to offering the essential data to the researchers pursuing research work in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop herbal antidiabetic drugs.
Conflicts of interest
SKJ and DPC equally participated in the preparation of manuscript. Both authors approve the publication of manuscript.
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