Critical Overview of Probiotics Efficacy on Health and its Safety


Bhargab Deka1*, Biswajit Dash2, Bhanita Saud3, Bedanta Bhattacharjee1, Abu Md Ashif Ikbal4

1Department of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh- 786004, Assam, India

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, NEPEDS College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beltola, Guwahati- 781028, Assam, India

3Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Dayanand Sagar University, Bengaluru- 560078, Karnataka, India

4Department of Pharmacy, Tripura University (A Central University), Suryamaninagar-799022, Tripura (W), India


The review is to analyse the therapeutic benefits of probiotics in various chronic disorders.All the data were identified using PUBMED (2000-2020) and bibliographic reviews of recent and old articles from an English literature search. After independent analysis by co-authors of the identified articles, data were analysed and extracted for the stated purpose.The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. Probiotics have an essential role in maintaining immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through direct interaction with immune cells. There is high-quality evidence that probiotics are effective for acute infectious diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea, hepatic encephalopathy, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Probiotics are safe for infants, children, adults, and older patients.Therapeuticapplications of probiotics have been widely studied to treat and improve the gut`s health; however, choosing a probiotic for a specific condition is a challenging task that requires parsing of the data for strain-specific efficacy and evaluation of product quality. It appears likely that more national organizations will be conducting evidence-based research, and the pharmacist and clinicians should pay attention to this ever-changing field.


Formulation Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Matrix Tablet of Levamisole Hydrochloride


Shoaeb Mohammad Syed1*, Kiran Gawale1, ZS Farooqui2

1Assistant Professor, Dr. Vedprakash Patil Pharmacy College, Aurangabad MH, India
2Lecturer Kamala Nehru Polytechnic Pharmacy, Aurangabad MH, India


The aim of current study was to develop suitable gastroretentive tablet of Levamisole HCl for prolonging the retention of Levamisole in stomach. Floating tablets were prepared by using HPMC K4M and Carbopol 934p in combination and their effect on floating, swelling and release of Levamisole HCl was studied. Optimization of drug release were carried out by taking different concentration of HPMC K4M and Carbopol 934p. It was found that HPMC and Carbopol with concentration 35% and 22% in tablet give satisfactory release and batch was selected for 32 factorial design. In this study all the formulation were subjected to physical evaluation parameter such as Hardness, Friability, content uniformity all were found to be within limits. In-vivo study F5 formulation was carried out to check the buoyancy of tablet. Tablet float in stomach of rabbit for 8 hours without adhering to gastric mucous. Stability studies of F5 formulation indicated that formulation is stable for 3 months at 40o C and 75% RH. The formulation retained its integrity and In-vitro performance.


Frequency and Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Candida Species Causing Candidemia in Bone Marrow Transplant Unit


Dr. Wajid Hussain1, Saira Bashir2, Prof. Irfan Ali Mirza1, Dr. Anam Imtiaz1, Dr. Umar Khurshid1, Prof Humaira Zafar3*, Dr Mariam Sarwar1

1Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi (46000), Pakistan
2National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS), Rawalpindi (46000), Pakistan
3Al Nafees Medical College & Hospital (44000), Islamabad


To determine the frequency and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species causing candidemia or blood stream infections (BSI) in immunocompromised patientsof a bone marrow transplant unit. The study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi in collaboration with Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Center (AFBMTC), Rawalpindi, from 1st June 2019 to 31st December 2019.Atotal 256 paired blood culture samples from patients of all ages, irrespective of gender were collected during a period of seven months. The samples were processed as recommended Clinical & Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Antifungal susceptibility by break point MICs was performed through VITEK® 2 system (version: 08.01) for Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericin B.  Of the total 256 blood cultures, 46 (17.97%) were positive for Candida species. The susceptibility of C. albicans was 100% to Amphotericin B, 90% to Fluconazole and 10% to Itraconazole, while C. tropicalis showed sensitivity of 92%, 88% and 0% against Amphotericin B, Fluconazole and Itraconazole, respectively. C. parapsilosis was found sensitive to Amphotericin B while resistance to Fluconazole and Itraconazole.Frequency of candidemia among immunocompromised patients is 17.9%. C. tropicalis and C. albicans are the two most common Candida species involved in blood stream infections in our setup. Fluconazole and Amphotericin B, both were found susceptible and can be used as empirical therapy.


Mechanism of Action of Wound Healing Activity of Calendula officinalis: A Comprehensive Review


Bhargab Deka1, Bedanta Bhattacharjee1, Anshul Shakya1, Abu Md Ashif Ikbal2*, Chayanika Goswami3, Santa Sarma3

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh – 786 004, Assam, India
2Department of Pharmacy, Tripura University (A Central University), Suryamaninagar- 799022, Tripura (W), India
3Department of Pharmacology, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences- 781017


Calendula officinalis is a short-lived aromatic herbaceous perennial plant. According to scientific literature, Calendula officinalis can also boost the wound healing activity. While the precise means it does is still unclear, it was assumed that the herb would increases the blood flow to the wound area, therefore supplying oxygen and nutrients necessary for tissue regeneration. The objective of the review is to understand and explore the relevant phytochemical and pharmacological information which will enhance it effective wound healing mechanism.  The data were identified using PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and bibliographic reviews of recent and old articles from an English literature search. After independent analysis by co-authors of the identified articles, data were analysed and extracted for the stated purpose.Calendula officinalis with its high quantity of flavonoids, it can help to minimize inflammation and speed up the healing process. Additional  usage for Calendula officinalis is that it can be a calming ointment, wash or tincture , since it can help to alleviate irritated wounds and minimize swelling and inflammation. Wound healing is a complex process, and Calendula officinalis have been historically used to treat minor wounds, skin irritation and minor burns. Data from large comparative clinical trials are needed before routine use can be recommended. Pharmacists and clinicians can effectively address patient questions about wound care and herbal therapies to help promote wound care practices that encourages wound healing and minimize poor outcomes such as infection or scaring.


Effect of Garlic and Onions Extract Enriched with Honey Treatment on the Lipid Profile, Biochemical and Hematological Biomarker Status in Healthy Women


Boulaares Islam1, Derouiche Samir1,2*

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of natural science sand life, University of El Oued, El-Oued 39000, Algeria
2Laboratory of Biodiversity and application of biotechnology in the agricultural field, University of El Oued, El-Oued 39000, Algeria


The onion and the garlic are among the oldest cultivated plants, serving as food and medicinal uses. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of honey, onion(Allium cepa) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum) clove extracts on the cardiovascular risque biomarker in healthy women. In a 15 days treatment, 20 women were divided into two groups (n=10), the first group is the group of control (reference) and the other group is women receive aqueous extract of mixt compound (honey, garlic and onions) (test) for 15 days. Some biochemical and hematological parameters were analyzed. Results obtained show that Cholesterol (p <0.05), Triglyceride (p <0.01) and serum calcium level were significantly decreased in the test group compared to reference group however, the level of Creatinine was significantly increased (p <0.05) in test group compared to reference group.Our results demonstrated also that there was no significant change (p≥0.05) in all hematological parameters levels in test group compared to reference group. From the results of the study we can conclude that onion, and garlic extracts enriched with bee honey have a protective effect on lipids profile. Thus, onion, and garlic are beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.


Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Self-Medication Among Community Pharmacy Consumers` Perspectives in Derna City, Libya


Asmaa Abdulaziz A. Rabee1, Raga A. Elzahaf2, Yahya Saber E. Mansour3, Nusieba A. Mohammed Ibrahim3

1Faculty of medicine department of pharmacology, Omar Elmokhta runiversity, Derna Libya
2Public Health Department, College of Medical Technology, Derna, Libya and MENA Research Group
3Faculty of Pharmacy department of pharmacology and toxicology, Omar Elmokhtar university, Elbieda Libya


Self-medication may be associated with side effects and increases the chance of drug interactions and also affects the potency of treatment and quality of life. This study aims to estimate knowledge, attitude and pharmacy practices concerning the usage of the drugs without prescription and identifying demographic factors that could influence self-medication among the consumers of community pharmacy in Derna- Libya. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 389 participants randomly selected depending on multi-stage random sampling technique. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire distributed over 10 different regions in Derna city. This study continued over2 months, in our result 215 (55.3%) of total participant used the self medication, most of them were male, the mean age of participants was 37.40±13.190 ranged from 14 to 83 years, most of participants 179(46%) were in university level, 235(60.4%) were in low-income level and 214(55%) were employee.  In our result 111(28.5%) of participants had low level of knowledge regarding the safety of self-medication, 186 (47.8%) don’t known OTC medication and prescription only medication. Based on the attitude total score 215 participants had negative attitude toward self-medications, 159 (40.9%) always purchase the medication without prescription, the most common reason for taking self-medication was that there was no need to visit the doctor for minor illness. And the most of medication dispensed without prescription were analgesics antipyretics for cases of cold and flu as well as in pain. Pharmacy practices were good, most of pharmacist provided information about drug interactions if taking this medicine without a prescription (84.6%) and did not face difficulties to find information about the medicine. 


Insight into Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): Rationalized Review Special Reference to COVID-19


Bedanta Bhattacharjee1, Abu Md Ashif Ikbal2*, Ram Kumar Sahu2, Meenakshi Ratra3

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Faculty of Science and Engineering, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh – 786004, Assam, India

2Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Assam University (A Central University), Silchar-788011, Assam, India

3VMS College of Pharmacy, Batala-143505, Punjab, India


The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which make an appearance in Wuhan China and spread globally. Coronavirus is a highly contagious virus, under the family Coronaviridae. SARS-CoV-2 causes respiratory breathing problems and can be transmitted through close contact, respiratory droplets and aerosol transmission. The binding of the structural spike proteins with the human ACE2 receptors plays a key role to initiate the event and severe complication of the disease. Clinical manifestation includes high fever, cough and dyspnoea. At present, there is no specific therapeutic strategy is available against the virus, only supportive care and management may be provided to the patients. In this review, we mainly focus and analyze the genetic morphology, pathogenesis and the therapeutic intervention. We further discuss the future perspective to confront with this viral epidemic.


Insight Mode of Action and Phytochemistry of Reported Medicinal Plant with Possible Antidiabetic Activity


Santosh Kumar Jha1,2*, D. P. Chatterjee2 

1Om Sadashiva College ofPharmacy,Sagdaha,Jasidih,Deoghar, Jharkhand, India

2Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, SAGE University, Indore (MP), India


Diabetes become very common in people of developed countries due to their changed food habit and no physical activity. The various types of synthetic medicines are available for the management of diabetes. These medicines are associated with the side effects. Apart from this, the alternative medicines such as herbal drug are the best option for the treatment of diabetes. The herbal medicines are free from any type of side effects, and presently their demands are increased. The herbal drugs are available in different dosage form. The numerous medicinal plants have been scientifically reported antidiabetic property by the researchers. The review paper highlights the plants having antidiabetic activity with their phytochemistry and possible mechanism of action. Additionally, the active constituents responsible for antidiabetic activity are also illustrated.           


Probable mechanism of action and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy Profile of the antimalarial fractions of the hexane seed extract of Garcinia kola (GUTTIFERAE)


Tejumade S. Ujomua,b*, Oyindamola O. Abioduna,b, Gabriel O. Adegokec,Grace O. Gbotoshoa,b,d

aMalaria Research Laboratories, Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, 200223, Nigeria

bDepartment of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, 200223, Nigeria

cDepartment of Food Science and Technology, University of Ibadan, 200223, Nigeria

dDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, 200223, Nigeria


To access the antimalarial activity, mechanism of action and constituents of the hexane extract of Garcinia kola (GK)seeds and its column-fractions. The in vivo antimalarial activity of the hexane extract of GK and its column-fractions against Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) strain, the mechanism of action and the chemical constituents of the column fractions was determined using the Peters’ 4-day suppressive test, the beta hematin assay and Gas chromatography- mass spectrometry respectively. In this study, Fractions 4,5,15 and 95 obtained from the hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds using column chromatography produced chemosuppression values ≥ 59.6% at 200 mg/kg. These fractions inhibited the conversion of heme to heamozoin and contained arenes following Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The observed antimalarial activity justifies the use of Garcinia kola seeds in the treatment of febrile illnesses.


Saccharification of Sawdust Masses from the Lagos Lagoon in Nigeria with Aspergillus niger Cellulase


JBM Sibiya1, NA Ndukwe2 and JPH van Wyk1*

1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, South Africa

2Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, Mountain Top University, Magoki, Ogun State, Nigeria


The Lagos Lagoon in Nigeria is extensively polluted with sawdust produced by hundreds of sawmills located on the banks of the lagoon. In order to develop cellulose as a possible resource of bioenergy different masses of various sawdust materials was exposed to the saccharification action by a fungal cellulase source, Aspergillus niger. Five different masses of delignified and non-delignified sawdust materials have been bio-converted with A. niger cellulase into glucose, a fermentable sugar. The amount of sugar released has increased when increasing masses of waste cellulose was degraded although the percentage saccharification shown a decline when increasing masses was degraded. Delignification of sawdust was effective in terms of sugar production during A. niger cellulase catalyzed degradation as the bio-conversion of all delignified materials produced more sugar than the non-delignified materials. The highest amount of sugar was produced from 10 mg of Pterygota macrocarpa sawdust while the highest percentage of saccharification was calculated at 85% during bio-conversion of 2.0 mg of delignified sawdust from P. macrocarpa. Sawdust along the Lagos Lagoon is a major solid waste product that could be developed as a resource of bio-energy if the cellulose component of this material is effectively saccharified.


Carriage of Antibiotic Resistant Biofilm Producing Bacteria on Mobile Phones Used By Health Care Professionals (HCP) in a Hospital in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE


Soniya Shivani1, Osman Ahmed1, Michael Magaogao1,2, Hafiz Ahmad1,2 and Ashfaque Hossain1,2

1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, RAK Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras al Khiamah, P.O. Box 11172, U.A.E

2 Central Research laboratory, RAK Medical and Health Sciences University, Ras al Khiamah, P.O. Box 11172, U.A.E


Cell phones are the most common gadgets used in today’s world. Studies from different countries demonstrated that these electronic gadgets can carry different bacterial species, including potential pathogenic strains. These gadgets are in the hands of every health care professionals (HCPs) and can even be found in the operation theatres (OT). Moreover, healthcare workers tend to neglect the potential infectious threat that these gadgets carry. Hence, we investigated the microbial profile present on cell phones used by HCPs in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Standard microbiological procedures were used for collection and identification of bacterial species. Disk diffusion assay and crystal violet dye binding spectrophotometric assay were used for determining antibiogram and biofilm forming potential, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis was present in 64.1% of the samples, followed by Micrococci (22.3%), Streptococcus viridians (2.2%), Diphtheroids (2.9%), Bacillus spp. (5.2%), Enterobacter spp. (1.4%) and Pseudomonas spp. (1.4%). The tested strains exhibited varied degree of antibiotic resistance and biofilm producing potential. Our data highlights that mobile phones may just not be carriers for normal skin flora but also for antibiotic resistant, biofilm forming potential opportunistic pathogens and thus may serve as transmission vectors for bacteria.  This is the first report from UAE analyzing carriage of bacteria in mobile gadgets used by HCPs. Furthermore, this would help to raise awareness among the HCPs about these electronic gadgets serving as a vehicle of transmission of bacterial pathogen. 


Role of Immune Response and Some Microbial Agents in Atopic Dermatitis Pathogenicity and Management


Suzan Yousif Jasim1*, Mayssaa E. Abdalah1, Bahir Abdul Razzaq Mshimesh2

1Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq

2Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq


Atopic dermatitis is a disease characterized by chronic inflammation, exhibiting its effects on a large number of children and adults. This disease results from many factors like defects in skin barrier, immunological, genetic and environmental factors. In addition to these factors, the presence of microorganisms on the skin surface of the patients, like Staphylococcus aureus, play important role in exacerbating the chronic inflammation. Atopic dermatitis patients exhibit defects in immune responses, which in turn increase the susceptibility to infections (bacterial, fungal and viral), so the presence of bacterium or its toxin lead to exacerbate the activity of the disease by stimulating the immune cells like Th-2 cells and eosinophils, in addition to activate the production of toxin-specific IgE. The relationship among atopic dermatitis, immune response and microbial infection, especially S. aureus, is incompletely understood. The current review aims to help the researchers within immunologic and dermatologic fields through shedding a light on the role of immune response and some microbial agents on the pathogenicity of atopic dermatitis. `


Awareness and Attitudes Regarding COVID-19 Among Clinical Dental Technicians in Albayda, Libya


Yahya Saber E. Mansour1*, Nusieba A. Mohammed Ibrahim1, Asmaa Abdulaziz A. Rabee2

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Albayda, Libya

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Derna, Libya


Despite the availability of prevention guidelines and recommendations on infection management, several dental practices lack the basic awareness of requirements for infection control. This study aimed to assess the amount of awareness, perception, and perspective relating to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and infection control among clinical dental technicians. The study population consisted of clinical dental technicians who worked in private clinics, hospitals, and health centers in Albayda, Libya. A questionnaire was sent to a sample of clinical dental technicians in August 2020. The questionnaire comprised of a series of questions about clinical dental technicians including the following: their demographic characteristics, their awareness of the incubation period, the symptoms of the disease, mode of transmission of COVID-19, and infection management measures for preventing COVID-19, and their perspective toward treating patients with COVID-19. This study enclosed a total of 35 clinical dental technicians aged 22–50 years (mean = 29.5 years, SD = 9.8 years). A total of 10 (28.5%) clinical dental technicians had completed a residency program in dentistry, 15 (42.8%) had received training in infection control in dentistry, and 10 (28.5%) had attended training or lectures regarding COVID-19. A total of 5 (14.2%) clinical dental technicians reported that the period of time is 1–14 days. The bulk of clinical dental technicians were aware of COVID-19 symptoms and ways patients are at risk of getting COVID-19, were able to correctly report best-known modes of transmission, and were aware of measures for preventing COVID-19 transmission in dental clinics. A total of 30 (85.7%) believed that it was necessary to wear masks when within the waiting room and to wash hands before going in the dental chair in order to decrease disease transmission. Clinical denturists were aware of COVID-19 symptoms, modes of transmission, and infection controls and measures in dental clinics. However, clinical dental technicians had restricted comprehension of the additional precautional measures that protect the dental staff and other patients from COVID-19.