Critical Overview of Probiotics Efficacy on Health and its Safety


Bhargab Deka1*, Biswajit Dash2, Bhanita Saud3, Bedanta Bhattacharjee1, Abu Md Ashif Ikbal4

1Department of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh- 786004, Assam, India

2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, NEPEDS College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beltola, Guwahati- 781028, Assam, India

3Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Dayanand Sagar University, Bengaluru- 560078, Karnataka, India

4Department of Pharmacy, Tripura University (A Central University), Suryamaninagar-799022, Tripura (W), India


The review is to analyse the therapeutic benefits of probiotics in various chronic disorders.All the data were identified using PUBMED (2000-2020) and bibliographic reviews of recent and old articles from an English literature search. After independent analysis by co-authors of the identified articles, data were analysed and extracted for the stated purpose.The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. Probiotics have an essential role in maintaining immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through direct interaction with immune cells. There is high-quality evidence that probiotics are effective for acute infectious diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea, hepatic encephalopathy, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Probiotics are safe for infants, children, adults, and older patients.Therapeuticapplications of probiotics have been widely studied to treat and improve the gut`s health; however, choosing a probiotic for a specific condition is a challenging task that requires parsing of the data for strain-specific efficacy and evaluation of product quality. It appears likely that more national organizations will be conducting evidence-based research, and the pharmacist and clinicians should pay attention to this ever-changing field.


Formulation Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Matrix Tablet of Levamisole Hydrochloride


Shoaeb Mohammad Syed1*, Kiran Gawale1, ZS Farooqui2

1Assistant Professor, Dr. Vedprakash Patil Pharmacy College, Aurangabad MH, India
2Lecturer Kamala Nehru Polytechnic Pharmacy, Aurangabad MH, India


The aim of current study was to develop suitable gastroretentive tablet of Levamisole HCl for prolonging the retention of Levamisole in stomach. Floating tablets were prepared by using HPMC K4M and Carbopol 934p in combination and their effect on floating, swelling and release of Levamisole HCl was studied. Optimization of drug release were carried out by taking different concentration of HPMC K4M and Carbopol 934p. It was found that HPMC and Carbopol with concentration 35% and 22% in tablet give satisfactory release and batch was selected for 32 factorial design. In this study all the formulation were subjected to physical evaluation parameter such as Hardness, Friability, content uniformity all were found to be within limits. In-vivo study F5 formulation was carried out to check the buoyancy of tablet. Tablet float in stomach of rabbit for 8 hours without adhering to gastric mucous. Stability studies of F5 formulation indicated that formulation is stable for 3 months at 40o C and 75% RH. The formulation retained its integrity and In-vitro performance.


Frequency and Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Candida Species Causing Candidemia in Bone Marrow Transplant Unit


Dr. Wajid Hussain1, Saira Bashir2, Prof. Irfan Ali Mirza1, Dr. Anam Imtiaz1, Dr. Umar Khurshid1, Prof Humaira Zafar3*, Dr Mariam Sarwar1

1Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi (46000), Pakistan
2National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS), Rawalpindi (46000), Pakistan
3Al Nafees Medical College & Hospital (44000), Islamabad


To determine the frequency and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species causing candidemia or blood stream infections (BSI) in immunocompromised patientsof a bone marrow transplant unit. The study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi in collaboration with Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Center (AFBMTC), Rawalpindi, from 1st June 2019 to 31st December 2019.Atotal 256 paired blood culture samples from patients of all ages, irrespective of gender were collected during a period of seven months. The samples were processed as recommended Clinical & Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Antifungal susceptibility by break point MICs was performed through VITEK® 2 system (version: 08.01) for Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericin B.  Of the total 256 blood cultures, 46 (17.97%) were positive for Candida species. The susceptibility of C. albicans was 100% to Amphotericin B, 90% to Fluconazole and 10% to Itraconazole, while C. tropicalis showed sensitivity of 92%, 88% and 0% against Amphotericin B, Fluconazole and Itraconazole, respectively. C. parapsilosis was found sensitive to Amphotericin B while resistance to Fluconazole and Itraconazole.Frequency of candidemia among immunocompromised patients is 17.9%. C. tropicalis and C. albicans are the two most common Candida species involved in blood stream infections in our setup. Fluconazole and Amphotericin B, both were found susceptible and can be used as empirical therapy.


Mechanism of Action of Wound Healing Activity of Calendula officinalis: A Comprehensive Review


Bhargab Deka1, Bedanta Bhattacharjee1, Anshul Shakya1, Abu Md Ashif Ikbal2*, Chayanika Goswami3, Santa Sarma3

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh – 786 004, Assam, India
2Department of Pharmacy, Tripura University (A Central University), Suryamaninagar- 799022, Tripura (W), India
3Department of Pharmacology, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences- 781017


Calendula officinalis is a short-lived aromatic herbaceous perennial plant. According to scientific literature, Calendula officinalis can also boost the wound healing activity. While the precise means it does is still unclear, it was assumed that the herb would increases the blood flow to the wound area, therefore supplying oxygen and nutrients necessary for tissue regeneration. The objective of the review is to understand and explore the relevant phytochemical and pharmacological information which will enhance it effective wound healing mechanism.  The data were identified using PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and bibliographic reviews of recent and old articles from an English literature search. After independent analysis by co-authors of the identified articles, data were analysed and extracted for the stated purpose.Calendula officinalis with its high quantity of flavonoids, it can help to minimize inflammation and speed up the healing process. Additional  usage for Calendula officinalis is that it can be a calming ointment, wash or tincture , since it can help to alleviate irritated wounds and minimize swelling and inflammation. Wound healing is a complex process, and Calendula officinalis have been historically used to treat minor wounds, skin irritation and minor burns. Data from large comparative clinical trials are needed before routine use can be recommended. Pharmacists and clinicians can effectively address patient questions about wound care and herbal therapies to help promote wound care practices that encourages wound healing and minimize poor outcomes such as infection or scaring.


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